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Introduction Obstructive urolithiasis is a commonly encountered emergency condition of small ruminants. 1 Treatment outcome is unpredictable, and temporary tube cystostomy under general anesthesia is prohibitively expensive and unavailable in

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

role of small ruminants is important to consider when investigating the epidemiology of COVID-19 because they have varied and close interactions with humans as livestock, companion animals, and zoo collection animals. Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Urolithiasis is the formation of calculi (“stones”) or concretions of mucus, protein, and minerals in the urinary tract. It is the most common cause of urinary tract disease in small ruminants. 1 Although presentation to veterinary services is

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To establish immortalized caprine fibroblastic cell lines permissive for replication of small ruminant lentiviruses.

Animals

Carpal synovial membrane explants collected aseptically from a surgically delivered fetus of a lentivirus-seronegative goat.

Procedure

Immortalization of goat embryonic fibroblasts was performed by DNA transfection with plasmids coding for simian virus 40 large T antigen. The generated cell lines were phenotypically characterized. Cytogenetics, growth pattern, and sensitivity to viral infection were studied.

Results

3 cell lines, designated TIGEF, mMTSV-54, and mMTSV-93, were generated. They had a more rapid doubling time than did fibroblasts from which they were derived, and retained morphologic and phenotypic fibroblastic characteristics. They were immortalized but not transformed because tumor formation was not promoted after their SC injection into athymic nude mice. The 3 cell lines were susceptible to caprine arthritisencephalitis virus and visna-maedi virus infections, and supported a complete virus replication cycle.

Conclusions

Cultured caprine fibroblastic cells were immortalized, using simian virus 40 large T antigen. The TIGEF, mMTSV-54, and mMTSV-93 immortalized cell lines were permissive to in vitro small ruminant lentivirus replication.

Clinical Relevance

Because lentivirus detection, as well as detailed studies of host-lentivirus interactions, are hampered by differences in viral susceptibility of each primary culture, permanent cell lines are essential tools for such analysis. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:579–584)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

environmental interactions associated with the virus. Locations of domestic ruminant livestock, ruminant wildlife, and human populations at risk for subsequent exposure to RVFV were also identified. Materials and Methods Review of agent factors important

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

In the FARAD Digest article “Drugs approved for small ruminants” published in the February 15, 2004, issue ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:520–523), the units for milk withdrawal intervals following administration of ivermectin in goats in Table 4

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the Netherlands, circular agriculture has become a political target since early 2019, illustrating the Dutch ambition to become a global innovator in transitioning toward sustainable agriculture. Sustainable Ruminant Health Animal health and

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

In the present FARAD Digest, common medications used to treat small ruminants in the United States and FARAD-recommended WDIs following ELDU in small ruminants will be reviewed. For this digest, we use the term small ruminants to refer only to

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

since 1994 by the Government of the State of Aguascalientes 13 ; it is located within zone A and contains an important population of WRs, captive ruminants, and other fauna. Inside of the WLIA, WCMSU units are used for hunting. In recent overall

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the apparent molecular weight for 24 ruminant respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV) on the basis of differences in the electrophoretic mobility of the phosphoprotein (P protein).

Procedure

29 bovine RSV (BRSV), 20 of which were not previously tested, 3 ovine RSV, and 1 caprine RSV isolates were selected for determination of electrophoretic mobility of the P protein. Virus radiolabeled with [35S]methionine was immunoprecipitated with polyclonal antiserum to BRSV and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

Results

On the basis of apparent molecular size of the P protein, all isolates could be categorized into 2 electropherotypes, low molecular size of 36 kd and high molecular size of 38 kd. Twenty-three BRSV, the 3 ovine RSV, and 1 caprine RSV isolates had a high molecular size P protein; 6 BRSV isolates had a low molecular size P protein.

Conclusions

The apparent molecular size of the P protein of the ruminant RSV strains is greater than that of the human RSV subgroups, providing further evidence of their distinctiveness. Whether categorization of electrophoretic mobility of the P protein of BRSV underlies distinct antigenic subgroups, as it does in human RSV, requires further antigenic and genetic analysis.

Clinicai Relevance

Antigenic subgroups of ruminant RSV may have relevance in the development of new vaccines for control of the disease. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:478–481)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research