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species of sea turtles, but not extensively described in freshwater turtles. These include an intraoral retrograde approach, removal via endoscopy and esophagostomy, and various approaches for celiotomy to retrieve fishhooks from different aspects of the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, first described in human patients in 1970, 1 is a minimally invasive technique that combines endoscopy and fluoroscopy to image and perform various treatments within the biliary system (ERC) and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

indicated that 1 of the ureteroliths had moved retrograde approximately 4 centimeters into the right renal pelvis. Additionally, sandlike material had moved retrograde. The left kidney was removed, and 6 ureteroliths were removed from the right ureter via

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Retrograde catheterization of the urinary bladder is a common, straightforward, and essential procedure in the management of many disorders of the urinary tract in most animal species. The procedure is used to obtain urine samples for analysis

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A technique for retrograde contrast radiography of the distal portions of the intestinal tract of foals was developed and then performed in 25 foals (1 to 30 days old) with colic. Retrograde contrast radiography was shown to be sensitive (100%) and specific (100%) for evaluating obstruction of the small colon or transverse colon. It was slightly less sensitive (86%) and specific (83%) for evaluation of the entire large colon, particularly in older foals. Retrograde contrast radiography provided increased diagnostic capability, compared with that for noncontrast radiography. Retrograde contrast radiography can provide valuable information when evaluating foals with colic and should be part of the diagnostic evaluation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the safety of endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) in dogs by performing repeated clinical examinations and laboratory analyses of serum amylase, lipase, canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity (cTLI), and canine pancreatic elastase 1 (cE1) after the procedure.

Animals—7 healthy Beagles.

Procedure—Clinical examinations were performed and blood samples obtained for serum enzyme determinations before and at intervals (10 minutes; 2, 4, and 6 hours; and 1, 2, and 3 days) after ERP.

Results—Repeated clinical examinations revealed no signs of ERP-induced complications in the 7 dogs. Results of repeated laboratory tests indicated a transient increase in serum values of amylase, lipase, and cTLI but not cE1. Mean ± SD lipase activity increased from 120.7 ± 116.4 U/L to 423.4 ± 243.1 U/L at 4 hours after ERP. Median serum cTLI concentration increased from 16.2 µg/L (range, 7.7 to 26.5 µg/L) to 34.9 µg/L (range, 16.6 to 68.3 µg/L) 10 minutes after ERP. Enzyme values returned to baseline levels at the latest on day 2 in 6 of 7 dogs. Highest values for serum amylase, lipase, and cTLI and their delayed return to baseline values were detected in 1 dog with contrast filling of the pancreatic parenchyma.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that ERP appears to be a safe imaging technique of pancreatic ducts in healthy dogs, although it induced a transient increase in serum values of pancreatic enzymes. In dogs, repeated clinical examinations and serum enzyme determinations can be used to monitor ERP-induced complications such as acute pancreatitis. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:616–619)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The effects of method of seminal collection and a diuretic on retrograde flow of spermatozoa into the urinary bladder of rams were examined. In experiment 1, semen and urine were collected from 8 rams during the non-breeding season. Prior to seminal collection, all rams were given furosemide and a sample of urine was obtained during micturition. Semen was then collected from each ram with an artificial vagina or by electroejaculation in alternate weeks for 4 weeks, and the urine released during the first postseminal collection micturition was collected in 4 consecutive samples. The volume of electroejaculates was larger (P < 0.0001) than the volume of ejaculates, but the total number of spermatozoa in the electroejaculate or in the ejaculate were not different (P > 0.1). Urine obtained before seminal collection was azoospermic or contained few, nonmotile spermatozoa (mean ± sd = 0.053 ± 0.114 × 106/ml). The adjusted spermatozoal concentration (mean ± sd = 1.630 ± 2.258 × 106/ml) in the urine collected after seminal collection was 31 times higher (P < 0.0001) and there were motile spermatozoa in most (97%) of the samples. The spermatozoal concentration in sequential samples of urine was not different (P > 0.1) between samples and was not affected (P > 0.1) by the method of seminal collection. There was a trend, approaching significance (P = 0.052), for an effect of method of seminal collection on the percentage of retrograde flow. Retrograde flow ranged from 0.21 to 19.38% when semen was collected with an artificial vagina and from 0.03 to 94.60% when semen was collected by electroejaculation and varied (P = 0.02) among rams within the 2 methods of seminal collection. In experiment 2, the 8 rams used in experiment 1 were given injections of 0.9% physiologic saline solution or furosemide in alternate weeks prior to seminal collection with an artificial vagina. Furosemide increased (P = 0.009) the volume of urine voided during the first postejaculation micturition, but did not influence (P > 0.1) the time from exposure of rams to the teaser to ejaculation, seminal characteristics, number of spermatozoa in the urine, or the percentage of retrograde flow. There was a trend (P < 0.1) for more rams to have motile spermatozoa in the postejaculation urine after treatment with furosemide. Administration of furosemide prior to seminal collection facilitates the noninvasive collection of pre- and postejaculation samples of urine for the determination of retrograde flow.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To compare retrograde filling cystometry at infusion rates of 5, 10, and 20 mL/min with diuresis cystometry for determination of an appropriate infusion rate and to confirm the reproducibility of measurements obtained by urethral pressure profilometry (UPP) and cystometry in female Beagles.

Animals—6 adult female Beagles.

Procedure—Successive UPP and cystometry were performed by use of a water perfusion catheter on dogs anesthetized with propofol. Dogs randomly underwent each of the following at 1-week intervals: retrograde filling cystometry at 5, 10, and 20 mL/min, and diuresis cystometry. The maximum urethral pressure and closure pressure, functional and anatomic profile lengths, threshold pressure, threshold volume, and compliance were measured.

Results—For each UPP variable, significant differences were found among dogs, but no significant differences were found in intra- or interstudy measurements for individual dogs. For retrograde filling cystometry, threshold pressure was not significantly different between a 5 and 10 mL/min infusion rate. Threshold pressure was significantly higher during retrograde filling cystometry at 20 mL/min, compared with 5 and 10 mL/min, and was associated with bladder wall damages. Threshold pressure was significantly lower during diuresis cystometry, compared with retrograde filling cystometries. Threshold volume and compliance were not significantly different among retrograde filling cystometries but were significantly higher during diuresis cystometry.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Retrograde filling cystometry at 20 mL/min leads to unacceptable sudden increase in threshold bladder pressure. Retrograde filling cystometry at 10 mL/min can be recommended in a clinical setting, shortening the anesthesia time. However, diuresis cystometry approximates physiologic bladder filling most accurately. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:574–579)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Retrograde flow of spermatozoa into the urinary bladder of dogs during ejaculation or after administration of xylazine was examined. In experiment 1, the mean (± SD) spermatozoal concentration in urine collected by cystocentesis before ejaculation was 0.322 ± 0.645 × 106/ml. After ejaculation, motile spermatozoa were present in the urine collected by cystocentesis from 12 of 15 dogs, and the concentration of spermatozoa in the urine (5.139 ± 7.014 × 106/ml) was higher (P < 0.025) than the concentration in the urine collected before ejaculation. The percentage of the total number of spermatozoa that were displaced during ejaculation and flowed into the urinary bladder (retrograde flow) ranged from 0 to 99.75% (24.67 ± 33.98%).

In experiments 2 and 3, administration of xylazine to sexually rested dogs induced retrograde flow of spermatozoa into the urinary bladder. In experiment 2, all dogs had spermatozoa in urine collected after xylazine administration, with motile spermatozoa present in the urine from 9 of 10 dogs. In experiment 3, urine collected from dogs before administration of xylazine was azoospermic or contained few, nonmotile spermatozoa (0.063 ± 0.135 × 106/ml), whereas urine collected after administration of xylazine had more (P < 0.025) and motile spermatozoa (3.717 ± 4.273 × 106/ml).

In experiment 4, administration of xylazine to dogs after ejaculation did not increase the concentration of spermatozoa in the urine. Results indicate that spermatozoa flow into the urinary bladder of dogs during ejaculation or after administration of xylazine to sexually rested dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The effect of methoxamine on retrograde flow of spermatozoa into the urinary bladder of domestic cats during electroejaculation and the incidence of retrograde flow during the collection of semen with an artificial vagina, or during mating was examined. In experiment 1, urine collected by cystocentesis prior to electroejaculation was azoospermic or contained few, nonmotile spermatozoa, whereas urine collected after electroejaculation contained more (P = 0.002) spermatozoa, and motile spermatozoa were evident in urine obtained from 6 of 8 cats. Administration of methoxamine hydrochloride (200 μg/kg of body weight, iv) did not affect spermatozoal output or percentage of retrograde flow. Percentage of retrograde flow for control cats ranged from 61.18 to 92.95% (mean ± sd, 80.00 ± 14.28%) and for methoxamine-treated cats, ranged from 15.25 to 92.49% (mean ± sd, 58.10 ± 32.28%), but the difference was not significant.

In experiment 2, an artificial vagina was used to collect semen from 5 of the 8 cats used in experiment 1. Urine collected by cystocentesis after ejaculation contained spermatozoa, and motile spermatozoa were evident in the urine from 4 of 5 cats. The mean (± sd) percentage of retrograde flow for these 5 cats was 46.82 ± 31.67% (range, 14.56 to 90.32%).

In experiment 3, each of the 5 cats that were used in experiments 1 and 2 were mated. Spermatozoa were recovered from the vagina of each mated female, and motile spermatozoa were also present in postejaculation urine obtained by cystocentesis from each of the 5 male cats. Mean total number of spermatozoa in the postmating urine was 29.42 ± 33.58 × 106 (range, 0.22 × 106 to 76.05 × 106 spermatozoa).

Anesthesia of cats with ketamine facilitated the obtention of urine by cystocentesis, but did not cause spermatozoal displacement into the urinary bladder. Results of this study confirm the fact that, in cats, appreciable numbers of spermatozoa are lost because of retrograde flow into the urinary bladder during electroejaculation. Recovery of spermatozoa from the urinary bladder after collection of semen with an artificial vagina or following natural mating, indicates that retrograde flow of spermatozoa is not an artifact derived from electrical stimulation, but is a component of the ejaculatory process in cats.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research