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Respiratory distress syndrome is a condition of newborn infants and neonatal calves in which insufficient oxygen uptake and increased retention of carbon dioxide result in respiratory acidosis. 1,2 The condition is more common in premature

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To characterize respiratory function and treatment in dogs with findings compatible with those of human adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and to evaluate the application in dogs of clinical criteria for diagnosis of ARDS.

Design

Retrospective review of medical records.

Animals

19 dogs with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Results

Arterial blood pH was 7.30 ± 0.059 (mean ± SD). Nine dogs had metabolic acidosis. In nonmechanically ventilated dogs, Paco2 was 15.0 to 54.9 mm of Hg. Respiratory acidosis developed in 2 mechanically ventilated dogs. Hypoxemia was observed in 4 of 5 dogs breathing room air. In 4 mechanically ventilated dogs, oxygenation was inadequate, despite use of > 60% inspired O2 and positive end-expiratory pressure in 3 dogs. Alveolar-to-arterial oxygen tension gradients were widened in 4 dogs breathing room air and in 6 dogs ventilated with 100% O2.

Ten dogs were mechanically ventilated; ventilatory rate was 18 to 60 breaths/min. Tidal volume was 12 ± 3.8 ml/kg of body weight in 4 dogs, minute ventilation > 400 ml/kg/min in 2 dogs, and peak airway pressures > 25 cm of H2O in 6 dogs. Positive end-expiratory pressure was used in 8 dogs. Pneumothorax was detected in 5 ventilated dogs.

Human clinical criteria for diagnosis of ARDS were fulfilled in 7 dogs. Fluid treatment consisted of IV crystalloids and synthetic colloids. Drugs most often administered were antibiotics and loop diuretics.

Clinical Implications

Human clinical criteria for identification of ARDS may be helpful in diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:1428-1433)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To describe clinical and clinicopathologic findings from dogs with histologic pulmonary lesions consistent with human adult respiratory distress syndrome and to identify potential risk factors.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

19 dogs with acute respiratory distress.

Procedure

Medical records of dogs were reviewed. Signalment, physical examination and clinicopathologic findings at admission, and thoracic radiographic and necropsy findings were recorded.

Results

The most common clinical sign was dyspnea. Respiratory rate ranged from 36 to 140 breaths/min, and abnormal breathing patterns were detected. Crackles were auscultated in 7 dogs. Severe diffuse interstitial and alveolar infiltrates were observed on thoracic radiography in 9 dogs shortly after arrival and developed later in 4 dogs. Four dogs were leukopenic and neutropenic. Disseminated intravascular coagulation was diagnosed in 2 dogs, and hypoalbuminemia was found in 8 dogs. Respiratory status deteriorated rapidly in all dogs, and 10 dogs were mechanically ventilated. Death was attributed solely to respiratory failure in 8 dogs. In the other 11 dogs, severe lesions in nonpulmonary organs, sepsis, or both may have contributed to death. The most common associated conditions that may have contributed to acute respiratory failure were microbial pneumonia, sepsis, aspiration pneumonia, and shock, with more than 1 factor found in 11 of 19 dogs.

Clinical Implications

The index of suspicion for acute respiratory distress syndrome should be high in dogs with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and acute respiratory distress that rapidly progresses to failure. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:1419-1427)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

distress syndrome. Comments Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature neonates, also called “neonatal asphyxia” is a life-threatening disorder reported in calves born before 270 days of gestation, that causes respiratory acidosis. 1 , 2 The

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To investigate effects of preterm induction of calving by administration of flumethasone and dinoprost on the lecithin-to-sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid and on neonatal respiratory distress after birth.

Animals

45 dairy cows and their newborn calves.

Procedure

Amniotic fluid from 45 cows was obtained and tested between days 258 and 270 of gestation. Cows were then given flumethasone (10 mg; n = 15), dinoprost (25 mg; n = 15), or saline solution (n = 15). Thirty hours later, left flank cesarean section was performed, amniotic fluid was collected, and the calf was delivered. Blood for determination of progesterone was withdrawn at amniotic fluid sample collections and before induction of calving. Blood for analysis of pH and base deficit was collected from calves during cesarean section and repeatedly after birth. Phospholipids in amniotic fluid were measured by thin-layer chromatography, and progesterone was determined by radioimmunoassay. Base deficit and pH were measured, using a blood gas analyzer.

Results

Before treatments, a corpus luteum was present in all cows and the lecithin-to-sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid did not differ between groups. Thirty hours after injections of flumethasone and dinoprost, progesterone concentration had decreased (P < 0.05) and the lecithin-to-sphingomyelin ratio was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than values in controls. In calves delivered after flumethasone or dinoprost treatments, the degree of acidosis was significantly (P < 0.05) less than that in controls.

Conclusions

Flumethasone and dinoprost, given to pregnant cows, accelerate fetal lung maturation and improve respiratory function after birth. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:404–407)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

respiratory disease after surgery secondary to suspected pulmonary thromboembolic disease or ARDS was shown to negatively affect discharge from the hospital (OR, 0.051; 95% CI, < 0.01 to 0.49; P = 0.01). Acute respiratory distress syndrome was defined by

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

from the hospital. Two dogs were euthanized 3 days after surgery because of dehiscence of the surgical site and development of septic peritonitis; 1 dog died of acute respiratory distress syndrome 5 days after surgery. The remaining 10 dogs and 7 cats

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

attribute VetALI to transfusions in the study dogs. ABBREVIATIONS ALI Acute lung injury ARDS Acute respiratory distress syndrome F io 2 Fraction of inspired oxygen Sp o 2 Oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry TRALI Transfusion

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

were otherwise identified. These findings were considered consistent with acute renal tubular necrosis with intratubular hemoglobin breakdown pigment; concurrent acute respiratory distress syndrome of unknown cause, ruminal tympany, and mesenteric

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Parvovirus infection was confirmed by fluorescent antibody staining or viral culturing in 137 (22%) of 615 necropsy accessions from dogs at the Missouri Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory from Jan 1, 1987 through Sept 30, 1988. Septicemic colibacillosis was diagnosed in 88 (90%) of the 98 canine parvovirus-positive accessions in which liver or lung was cultured bacteriologically. Pulmonary edema or alveolitis similar to that seen in the human adult respiratory distress syndrome was observed in 63 (69%) of the 91 canine parvovirus-positive accessions in which the lungs were examined histologically.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association