of horses euthanized with pentobarbital detected it at 367 days after euthanasia. Pentobarbital also may persist through some animal disposal methods, such as rendering, causing animal food containing such rendered product to be adulterated and
of the 3-D renderings of these bones.
Materials and Methods
The CT images of 3 bones were selected from the veterinary hospital database of North Carolina State University. The right femur of a 19-month-old male cat (small replica
distortion-free panoramic images), and indirect volume renderings (tridimensional renderings) in tooth and bone mode.
The objective of the study reported here was to evaluate the use of conventional full-mouth intraoral dental radiography and CBCT for the
images can be used to evaluate OA severity, including 3-D maximum intensity projection (MIP), 3-D surface rendering (TSR), and multiplanar reconstructed (MPR) images, 15 – 19 there are several options for schemes to grade elbow OA. However, comparisons
Three-dimensional volume-rendering software that allows the image of a tumor to be displayed and measured in 3 planes on multidetector CT images is becoming increasingly available. This technology allows clinicians to more accurately assess tumor size
can provide sagittal, dorsal, and transverse slices as well as serial transplanar reformation (cross sections) of each individual tooth, curved planar reformation (simulated distortion-free panoramic images), and indirect volume rendering in tooth and
data were transformed into a stack of 2-D cross sections through the sample, resulting in a 3-D data set. The 3-D rendering was performed with dedicated software. c
The micro-CT images were reviewed and evaluated by 2 investigators (LMDR and IMG), and
To evaluate accuracy of articular surfaces determined by use of 2 perpendicular CT orientations, micro-CT, and laser scanning.
23 cat cadavers.
Images of antebrachia were obtained by use of CT (voxel size, 0.6 mm) in longitudinal orientation (CTLO images) and transverse orientation (CTTO images) and by use of micro-CT (voxel size, 0.024 mm) in a longitudinal orientation. Images were reconstructed. Craniocaudal and mediolateral length, radius of curvature, and deviation of the articular surface of the distal portion of the radius of 3-D renderings for CTLO, CTTO, and micro-CT images were compared with results of 3-D renderings acquired with a laser scanner (resolution, 0.025 mm).
Measurement of CTLO and CTTO images overestimated craniocaudal and mediolateral length of the articular surface by 4% to 10%. Measurement of micro-CT images underestimated craniocaudal and mediolateral length by 1%. Measurement of CTLO and CTTO images underestimated mediolateral radius of curvature by 15% and overestimated craniocaudal radius of curvature by > 100%; use of micro-CT images underestimated them by 3% and 5%, respectively. Mean ± SD surface deviation was 0.26 ± 0.09 mm for CTLO images, 0.30 ± 0.28 mm for CTTO images, and 0.04 ± 0.02 mm for micro-CT images.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Articular surface models derived from CT images had dimensional errors that approximately matched the voxel size. Thus, CT cannot be used to plan conforming arthroplasties in small joints and could lack precision when used to plan the correction of a limb deformity or repair of a fracture.
Objective—To identify risk factors associated with the spread of low pathogenicity H7N2 avian influenza (AI) virus among commercial poultry farms in western Virginia during an outbreak in 2002.
Procedure—Questionnaires were used to collect information about farm characteristics, biosecurity measures, and husbandry practices on 151 infected premises (128 turkey and 23 chicken farms) and 199 noninfected premises (167 turkey and 32 chicken farms).
Results—The most significant risk factor for AI infection was disposal of dead birds by rendering (odds ratio [OR], 7.3). In addition, age ≥ 10 weeks (OR for birds aged 10 to 19 weeks, 4.9; OR for birds aged ≥ 20 weeks, 4.3) was a significant risk factor regardless of poultry species involved. Other significant risk factors included use of nonfamily caretakers and the presence of mammalian wildlife on the farm. Factors that were not significantly associated with infection included use of various routine biosecurity measures, food and litter sources, types of domestic animals on the premises, and presence of wild birds on the premises.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that an important factor contributing to rapid early spread of AI virus infection among commercial poultry farms during this outbreak was disposal of dead birds via rendering off-farm. Because of the highly infectious nature of AI virus and the devastating economic impact of outbreaks, poultry farmers should consider carcass disposal techniques that do not require offfarm movement, such as burial, composting, or incineration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:767–772)
surface rendering images obtained via micro-CT was detailed. Tertiary structures of complicated fractures were clearly visible in micro-CT images of rabbits with humeral and tibial fractures. Fractures of the maxilla that were difficult to detect in detail