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cardiac disease, CHF, or warrants a larger cardiology workup (eg, echocardiogram). Thus, a canine reference range has been formulated to be able to accurately identify dogs with cardiomegaly. The initial 1995 study by Buchanan et al 4 showed that 98% of

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Hematologic and serum biochemical reference ranges are useful for detecting health abnormalities in individuals and animal populations. In many species, reference ranges have been derived for animals of differing age and sex, which have provided

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

knowledge of the variability inherent in cyclic females and without well-supported reference ranges established empirically within diagnostic laboratories. Reproductive function differs substantially between cats and dogs, and that can complicate the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

and processing conditions for the test and determine the reference range for PCD results in healthy dogs. By investigating the effects of various methods of blood sample preparation (such as anticoagulant use and interval from blood collection to gas

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Introduction Body temperature of the horse is routinely assessed by measurement of rectal temperature during physical examination. The normal reference range of rectal temperature in horses has been well established and is 37.5 to 38.3 °C. 1

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare values of blood parameters in rockfish obtained by use of a point-of-care portable blood analyzer with values determined by a veterinary diagnostic laboratory, calculate reference ranges for various blood parameters in black rockfish, and compare values of blood parameters in clinically normal fish with those of fish with clinical abnormalities.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—41 captive adult black rockfish (Sebastes melanops) and 4 captive adult blue rockfish (Sebastes mystinus).

Procedure—Rockfish were anesthetized with tricaine methanesulfonate for collection of blood samples. Heparinized blood samples were immediately analyzed with a point-of-care analyzer. Blood sodium, potassium, chloride, urea nitrogen, and glucose concentrations; Hct; pH; partial pressure of carbon dioxide; total carbon dioxide concentration; bicarbonate concentration; base excess; and hemoglobin concentration were determined. A microhematocrit technique was used to determine PCV, and a refractometer was used to estimate total plasma protein concentration. Paired heparinized blood samples were transported to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory for analyses.

Results—Data obtained with the point-of-care analyzer were reproducible; however, values for most blood parameters were significantly different from those obtained by the veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Fish with poor body condition had several blood parameter values that were lower than corresponding values in clinically normal fish.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Point-of-care blood analyses may prove useful in rockfish. Point-of-care data for a large number of clinically normal fish must be obtained for reference ranges to be calculated, and further assessments of clinically abnormal fish are necessary to determine the relevance of the data. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:255–265)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Hematologic and serum biochemical values were determined in blood samples from 217 donkeys (Equus asinus). Donkeys were classified on the basis of size, sex, age, and whether they were domestic or feral. Parametric (mean ± 2 sd) and nonparametric (2.5th to 97.5th percentile) reference ranges were calculated for each analyte.

For all donkeys, 26 of 46 analytes significantly departed from gaussian distribution. Serum lactate dehydrogenase activity in miniature donkeys was higher than that in other donkeys. Differential leukocyte counts in feral donkeys differed from those in other types in ways that suggested that the former had smaller parasite loads or experienced greater stress. Erythrocyte, lymphocyte, and platelet counts and fibrinogen, glucose, inorganic phosphorus, and potassium concentrations decreased with age. Eosinophil counts, mean corpuscular volume, and plasma protein, serum protein, and serum globulin concentrations increased with age. Female donkeys had significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and leukocyte and neutrophil counts than did male donkeys. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin increased with age, and females had higher values than did males of all age groups. An interaction between age and sex was observed for alkaline phosphatase activity, with a trend for decreased activity with age.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine blood cell morphologic characteristics and hematologic and plasma biochemical reference ranges for iguanas housed in a warm indoor and outdoor environment with regular exposure to direct sunlight.

Design—Original study.

Animals—51 clinically normal iguanas (18 males, 25 females, and 8 juveniles) housed in 3 Florida locations.

Procedure—Blood was collected from the coccygeal or ventral abdominal vein. Any samples that had obvious hemolysis or clot formation were not used. Leukocyte counts were determined manually; other hematologic values were obtained by use of a commercially available cell counter. Plasma biochemical values were determined by use of a spectrophotometric chemistry analyzer. Blood smears were stained with Wright-Giemsa and cytochemical stains for morphologic and cytochemical evaluation.

Results—Hematologic ranges were generally higher in this study than previously reported. Thrombocytes were variable in appearance between individuals and sometimes difficult to distinguish from lymphocytes on a Wright-Giemsa preparation. Concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, total protein, globulins, and cholesterol were significantly higher, and the albumin:globulin ratio was significantly lower, in healthy gravid females than in male or nongravid female iguanas. Nongravid females had significantly higher calcium and cholesterol concentrations, compared with males. The calcium:phosphorus ratio was > 1 in all iguanas. Gravid females had a calcium phosphorus product ranging between 210 and 800. Intracytoplasmic inclusions were identified within the erythrocytes of some iguanas.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hematologic ranges for iguanas in this study are higher than those reported for iguanas. Sex and age of the iguana should be considered when evaluating biochemical values. Healthy ovulating and gravid females may have significantly increased electrolyte and protein concentrations, but maintain a calcium:phosphorus ratio > 1. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:915–921)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives—To acquire reference range values indicative of glucose metabolism by use of the hyperglycemic clamp technique in healthy horses and evaluate the usefulness of the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique in healthy horses and ponies.

Animals—5 Dutch Warmblood horses and 4 Shetland ponies.

Procedure—The hyperglycemic clamp technique was used for quantification of the sensitivity of beta cells to exogenous glucose infusion in horses. The euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique was used to determine the sensitivity and responsiveness of tissues to exogenous insulin in horses and ponies.

Results—During the hyperglycemic clamp technique, the mean amount of glucose metabolized (M) in horses was 0.011 ± 0.0045 mmol/kg·min–1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0018 to 0.020 mmol/kg·min–1; range, 0.000035 to 0.021 mmol/kg·min–1) and the mean M value-to-plasma insulin concentration (I) ratio (ie, mmol of glucose/kg·min–1 per pmol of insulin/L X 100) was 0.017 ± 0.016 (95% CI, –0.014 to 0.049; range, 0.000025 to 0.055). During the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique, the mean M value was 0.014 ± 0.0055 mmol/kg·min–1 (95% CI, 0.0026 to 0.025 mmol/kg·min–1; range, 0.0042 to 0.023 mmol/kg·min–1) in horses and 0.0073 ± 0.0020 mmol/kg·min–1 (95% CI, 0.0034 to 0.011 mmol/kg·min–1; range, 0.0049 to 0.011 mmol/kg·min–1) in ponies. The M value was significantly lower in ponies than in horses, whereas the M:I ratios were not significantly different between horses and ponies.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Glucose clamp techniques offer good methods to investigate glucose metabolism in horses and ponies. A higher degree of insulin resistance was found in ponies, compared with Dutch Warmblood horses. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64: 1260–1264)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

reference range for copper concentration (< 150 ppm) and 27 (8%) samples above the normal reference range (> 400 ppm) ranging from 401 to 891 ppm ( Table 3 ) . 4 , 5 Of the samples above the normal reference range, 4 had abnormal pathologies consistent

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association