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, radiolucent foreign bodies are frequently observed indicating that general practitioners may not be fully aware of what they are looking for during initial review. Such second opinion submissions and professional social media group postings specifically

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The source of a previously described radiolucent crescent in the flexor cortex of the distal sesamoid (navicular) bone on the palmaro45°proximal-palmarodistal oblique (Pa45°Pr-PaDio) clinical radiographic projection was investigated in 48 forelimb navicular bones from 24 Thoroughbreds by use of high-detail radiography and x-ray computed tomography (ct). Twenty-five of these bones also were evaluated, using microradiography and histologic examinations. Of these 25 bones, 5 had been labeled in vivo with fluorochrome markers. Tetrachrome-stained 100-µm-thick nondecalcified sections of these 5 bones were examined, using epifluorescence microscopy.

A reinforcement line of compacted cancellous bone, parallel and several millimeters deep to the flexor cortex in the region of the flexor central eminence, was visualized by ct in 42 of 48 navicular bones and by microradiography in 23 of 25 navicular bones investigated. Variable degrees of compaction were observed in the cancellous bone between the flexor cortex and the reinforcement line. High-detail skyline radiographic projections and reconstructed ct images indicated a crescent-shaped lucency within the flexor central eminence of the flexor cortex in the bones in which the reinforcement line was identified, but the cancellous bone between the reinforcement line and the flexor cortex had not been compacted. The radiolucent crescent seen in the flexor central eminence of the navicular bone on the Pa45°Pr-PaDiO projection was not caused by the concave defect or synovial fossa of the flexor central eminence overlying the flexor cortex, as was described. The crescent-shaped lucency within the navicular bone flexor central eminence identified on clinical radiographs was associated with remodeling of cancellous bone within the medullary cavity of the navicular bone. It is hypothesized that remodeling of the cancellous bone is secondary to biomechanical stresses and strains placed on the navicular bone, although the clinical relevance of this finding was not determined during the study.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the ossified cartilage or remain separate with a radiolucent line at the junction between them. 1 Radiographic differentiation of the junction between a separate center of ossification and the distal ossified cartilage versus fracture of an ossified

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

,8-dihydroxyadeninuria is likely underdiagnosed in humans. 4,10,13,15 In the dog with 2,8-DHA uroliths of the present report, ultrasonography of the urinary system revealed renal, ureteral, and cystic uroliths; these uroliths were radiolucent. Because urate and 2,8-DHA

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

for Animals position). A 100-mm marker was placed above and parallel to the radiography tabletop at the height of the left femoral head for magnification recalibration. Imaging revealed a 4-mm radiolucent lesion on the distal caudomedial aspect of the

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Results of total hip arthroplasty in 84 dogs (96 hips) were evaluated. Eight (9.5%) of the 84 dogs developed 1 or more complications after total hip arthroplasty. Complications resolved or were corrected in 4 of the dogs; all 4 ultimately achieved good or excellent hip function. Complications necessitated removal of the prosthesis in the other 4 dogs; 3 ultimately achieved fair hip junction and 1 had only poor hip junction. Therefore, after resolution of complications, 96% of the hips had good or excellent function. Force plate analysis was performed on 6 dogs with excellent hip function; peak vertical force for the limb that had been operated on was greater than or equal to peak vertical force for the contralateral limb. Radiographically, a radiolucent zone was visible around the acetabular component in 89% of the hips and around the femoral component in 26%. The radiolucent zone around the acetabular and femoral components widened in 14% (6 of 43) and 27% (3 of 11), respectively, of the hips with adequate radiographic follow-up. Aseptic loosening of the acetabular component developed in 3 (3%) of 96 hips; one was successfully revised. Aseptic loosening of the femoral component was not apparent in any of the dogs in this study. Other complications included femoral fracture (n = 3), neurapraxia (3), luxation (1), and unexplained lameness that required implant removal (1). None of the dogs had evidence of wound infection.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine clinical signs, radiographic findings, results of surgical management, and potential causes of aseptic loosening of the femoral implant (ALFI) in dogs that have undergone cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA).

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

11 cases of ALFI in 10 dogs.

Procedure

Medical records of all dogs undergoing THA revision surgery were reviewed. Only dogs with ALFI were included. The prosthesis and cement were removed by creating a longitudinal osteotomy of the cranial femoral cortex. Postoperative radiographs of all dogs that underwent THA during the study period were reviewed.

Results

The most common clinical sign was intermittent, subtle, or non–weight-bearing lameness. On radiographs obtained after THA, contact of the distal stem tip with cortical endosteum was evident in all dogs. Radiographic changes at the time of diagnosis of ALFI included asymmetric periosteal reaction along the femoral diaphysis, radiolucent lines between the prosthesis and cement, altered implant position, and femoral fracture. Surgical revision yielded good or excellent results in 9 cases. In 1 dog, the implant became infected; in another, aseptic loosening recurred. Aseptic loosening was significantly more common in dogs in which there was contact between the distal stem tip and cortical endosteum than in dogs in which there was no contact.

Clinical Implications

ALFI is an uncommon, but important, complication of THA, and radiography is warranted in dogs with clinical signs of ALFI. Initial centering of the prosthetic stem within the femoral shaft may reduce the incidence of ALFI. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:580–586)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

from Figure 1 —then turn the page→ Radiographic Findings and Interpretation A radiolucent ovoid, smoothly marginated, 8 × 13-mm, cyst-like structure is evident in the medial styloid process of the radius and is surrounded by mild sclerosis

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify and measure radiolucencies at the solear margin of the distal phalanx in radiographs of healthy and laminitic hooves.

SAMPLE

Clinical records and dorsoproximal-palmarodistal radiographs of equine forelimbs with radiological diagnoses of either laminitis (n = 40, L) or navicular syndrome (n = 40, NS).

METHODS

Outlines of the radiolucent structures at the solar margin were drawn in ImageJ, and a customized novel plugin “Arteries Analyzer/ImageJ” was used for measurements. The diverging radiolucencies outside the terminal arc of the distal phalanx were differentiated as arterial channels (open at the solear margin) and ellipses (closed at the solear margin). Comparisons between L and NS, between distal phalanges with and without ellipses, and of arterial channels and ellipses in areas were compared using Wilcoxon and the Mann-Whitney U tests, respectively. The reliability and repeatability of the method were tested using Friedman’s test.

RESULTS

Fewer arterial channels but more ellipses were identified in L than in NS. In phalanges with ellipses (n = 47), the number of ellipses and the number of arterial channels were negatively correlated (PCC −0.181, P = .224). The number of ellipses correlated positively with the severity of laminitis (PCC 0.495, P < .001; n = 80) and with the degree of rotation of the distal phalanx (PCC 0.392, P < .001; n = 80).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The software tool successfully measured arterial channels and ellipses outlined by the evaluators. Results indicate that healthy arteries develop into pathological ellipses in laminitic feet. This may be used to complement the interpretation of radiographs and support clinical decision-making.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Figure 1 —then turn the page → Radiographic Findings and Outcome Similar radiographic changes are found in both antebrachia. There is an ill-defined, radiolucent zone in the distal metaphysis of each ulna that parallels the physis with a

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association