available in which proper radiographic techniques are described. Results of a recent study 21 indicate 49.6% of repository radiograph sets for Australian Thoroughbreds in yearling sales contained at least 1 nondiagnostic radiograph (ie, radiograph with
defect that is broader than 4 mm. Horses in this category consistently underperform at ages 2 and 3. 3 , 6
(A) The radiographs of Thoroughbreds aged 12–18 months obtained between 2021 and 2022 are categorized into 3 classes: (a) Normal
tissue swelling and edema of her left dorsocranial neck and head were noted, and the mare had an extremely limited range of motion in the neck. On day 3, lateral radiographs were taken of C1 and C2, but a clear diagnosis was not immediately identified. On
thoracic radiographs would be associated with BCS in dogs.
Materials and Methods
Dogs examined at the Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine's Foster Hospital for Small Animals for which the diagnostic evaluation included obtaining
can be visually examined, evaluation of the interphalangeal joint spaces is best accomplished with dorsopalmar and lateromedial radiographs of the foot. To accurately assess joint balance, a horse should be standing squarely with its forelimbs on
tract, and review of a standardized set of survey radiographs, as regulated by the specific sales company. Radiographic images are stored in repositories for review by prospective buyers and their veterinarian prior to the auction.
Given the results of
) are limited. Investigators of 1 study 9 concluded that measurement of the tracheal bifurcation angle on dorsoventral thoracic radiographs was not reliable for estimation of LA size.
The purpose of the study reported here was to describe VLAS, a
. 12–15 Postprocessing algorithms for viewing digital radiographs allow the reviewer to manipulate an image to individual preferences. 16 Any postprocessing that would help to improve interpretation efficiency and minimize the possibility of missed
Objective—To determine absolute and relative heart
size in clinically normal cats by correlating heart size
and selected skeletal structures.
Design— Prospective radiographic study.
Animals—100 cats that did not have thoracic radiographic
Procedure—Standardized measurements of the long
and short axes of the heart, midthoracic vertebrae,
and other structures were made. Measurements
were recorded in millimeters and number of thoracic
vertebral lengths spanned by each dimension, measured
caudally from T4 in a lateral radiograph. The
long- and short-axis measurements of the heart,
expressed in vertebral lengths, were added to yield
vertebral heart size.
Results—Mean ± SD vertebral heart size in lateral
radiographs was 7.5 ± 0.3 vertebrae. The long-axis
dimension correlated with the length of 3 sternebrae,
measured from S2 to S4. The cardiac short-axis
dimension correlated moderately with the length of
3.2 vertebrae, measured from T4 to T6. The cardiac
short-axis dimension in ventrodorsal radiographs was
3.4 ± 0.25 vertebrae.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The vertebral
heart-size method is easy to use, allows objective
assessment of heart size, and may be helpful in determining
cardiomegaly and comparing heart size in
sequential radiographs. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:210–214)