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demonstrated that therapeutic levels of amikacin can be achieved in the radiocarpal joint (RCJ) using IVRLP in the cephalic vein. In an effort to increase C max in the RCJ, the use of IVRLP with 2 tourniquets to further isolate the carpus from systemic

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

susceptible organisms or > 160 µg/mL for resistant organisms after IVRLP. Previous studies 22 , 23 have demonstrated that these therapeutic levels can be achieved in the radiocarpal joint (RCJ) following IVRLP in the cephalic vein and that these levels may

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

synovitis was induced by injection of LPS in a radiocarpal joint. The experimental protocol was approved by the Danish Animal Experimentation Board, and all procedures were carried out in compliance with the Danish Animal Testing Act. Horses —Eight adult

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the proximal sesamoid bones (23%; 95% CI, 19% to 27%), enthesophytes or osteophytes in the radiocarpal joints (22%; 95% CI, 18% to 26%), and OCD of the sagittal ridge of MC3 (20%; 95% CI, 16% to 24%). In addition, 12 of the 397 (3%; 95% CI, 1% to 5

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

to be free of radiocarpal joint disease on the basis of history and findings of clinical and previous radiographic examinations. None of the horses had received antimicrobial treatment within 3 months of the study. Horses were randomly allocated to 1

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

evaluation of joint injury in horses. ABBREVIATIONS HMGB-1 High-mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 IL Interleukin MCJ Middle carpal joint MCP Metacarpophalangeal MTP Metatarsophalangeal RCJ Radiocarpal joint SF Synovial fluid

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Immunocytochemical analysis of equine synovial membranes revealed presence of several neuropeptides, including substance P (sp), neurokinin A, and neuropeptide Y, in nerves of the radiocarpal, middle carpal, and metacarpophalangeal (fetlock) joints. Within the subsynovium, these neuropeptides were located perivascularly, whereas in the fronds, only neuropeptide Y was restricted to the vessels of the synovial membrane. Only sp and neurokinin A were found in the intimal layer. The intimal layer of the metacarpophalangeal joint contained more sp-immunoreactive fibers than were observed in the intimal layer of the radiocarpal joint. Substance P also was detected in the synovial fluid from all 3 joints, but mean ± sd concentrations were significantly different only between the middle carpal joint (37.56 ± 5.48 fmol/ml; n = 6) and the metacarpophalangeal joint (55.80 ± 8.33 fmol/ml; n = 5) and between the middle carpal joint and the radiocarpal joint (52.43 ± 14.60 fmol/ml; n = 7).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the effects of orally administered glucosamine hydrochloride (GIAm)–chondroitin sulfate (sCS) and GIAM–CS–S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) on chemically induced synovitis in the radiocarpal joint of dogs.

Animals

32 adult mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure

For 21 days, all dogs received a sham capsule (3 groups) or GIAm-CS (prior treatment group) in a double-blinded study. Unilateral carpal synovitis was induced by injecting the right radiocarpal joint with chymopapain and the left radiocarpal joint (control joint) with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Joints were injected on alternate days for 3 injections. After induction of synovitis, 2 groups receiving sham treatment were given GIAm-CS or GIAm-CS–SAMe. Another group continued to receive sham capsules (control group). Joint inflammation was quantified, using nuclear scintigraphy, before injection of joints and days 13, 20, 27, 34, 41, and 48 after injection. Lameness evaluations were performed daily.

Results

Dogs given GIAm-CS before induction of synovitis had significantly less scintigraphic activity in the soft-tissue phase 48 days after joint injection, significantly less uptake in the bone phase 41 and 48 days after joint injection, and significantly lower lameness scores on days 12 to 19, 23, and 24 after injection, compared with other groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Analysis of results of this study suggest that prior treatment with GIAm-CS for 21 days had a protective effect against chemically induced synovitis and associated bone remodeling. Prior treatment with GIAm-CS also reduced lameness in dogs with induced synovitis. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1552–1557)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Keratan sulfate (ks) is a glycosaminoglycan, distribution of which is confined mostly to hyaline cartilage. As such, it is a putative marker of hyaline cartilage catabolism. In experiment 1, a focal osteochondral defect was made arthroscopically in 1 radial carpal bone of 2 ponies, and in 2 other ponies, chymopapain was injected into the radiocarpal joint to induce cartilage catabolism. Sequential and concurrent plasma and synovial fluid concentrations of ks were measured, up to 13 months after induction of cartilage injury, to determine whether changes in ks concentrations reflected cartilage catabolism. In experiment 2, a large, bilateral osteochondral defect was made in the radial carpal bones of 18 ponies, which were subsequently given postoperative exercise and/or injected intra-articularly with 250 mg of polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (PSGAG). Medication was given at surgery, then weekly for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected and synovial fluid was aspirated before surgery, when medication was given, and at postmortem examination (postoperative week 17). The ks concentration was measured in these fluids to determine whether changes in ks concentration indicated an effect of joint treatment.

In experiment 1, the concentration of ks in synovial fluid was highest 1 day after joint injury, and the concentration in plasma peaked 2 days after joint injury. For ponies receiving chymopapain intra-articularly (generalized cartilage catabolism), a fivefold increase over baseline was observed in the concentration of ks in plasma (peak mean, 1.2 μg/ml), and a tenfold increase over baseline in synovial fluid (peak mean, 2.0 mg/ml) was observed. On average, these maxima were threefold higher than values in fluids of ponies with osteochondral defects (focal cartilage disease).

In experiment 2, nonexercised ponies had lower ks concentration (as a percentage of the preoperative concentration) in synovial fluid than did exercised ponies at all postoperative times, and at postoperative week 17, this effect was significant (P < 0.05). This may be related to decreased turnover of ks in articular cartilage attributable to stall confinement and late increase in turnover related to exercise. Seventeen weeks after surgery, synovial fluid from exercised, medicated ponies had significantly (P < 0.05) higher ks content than did fluid from exercised, nonmedicated ponies. This indicated that exercise, when combined with medication, may increase ks release from articular cartilage. Synovial fluid from medicated joints of nonexercised ponies had significantly (P < 0.05) lower ks concentration than did synovial fluid from nonmedicated joints of nonexercised ponies. This indicated that, in nonexercised joints, medication with PSGAG may have decreased either release of ks from the articular cartilage into the synovial fluid or inhibited synthesis of ks. Concentration of ks in synovial fluid was not related clearly to the development of osteoarthritis in these ponies. Exercise or medication did not affect plasma ks concentration, and synovial fluid and plasma ks concentrations were not correlated. Data indicated that ks concentration in plasma and synovial fluid may be increased in acute, marked, generalized articular cartilage catabolism and that ks turnover in cartilage of joints with large osteochondral defects was affected by intra-articular PSGAG and postoperative exercise.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

carpometacarpal joints were widened, confirming injury to the medial collateral ligament of the carpus. There was also mild subluxation of the radiocarpal joint evident on this view, with medial displacement of the intermedioradial carpal bone relative to the

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association