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accessed the screening survey, with 3 screeners being incomplete and 1 considered ineligible due to being located outside of the US. Eligible participants were asked to participate in a semistructured qualitative interview, leading to 18 individuals

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

original audio and corrected any errors before they were uploaded to ATLAS.ti (version 23.1.1.0; ATLAS.ti Scientific Software Development GmbH) for analysis. A qualitative, thematic analysis approach was utilized that allowed us to both pursue original

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

reported by small animal veterinarians. In the present study, we conducted a qualitative exploration through veterinary focus groups to broaden the investigation of barriers to nutrition communication that small animal veterinarians face in practice and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

resulting in better outcomes, including better pain control. 4 For example, a recent qualitative study 5 found that for patients of a chronic pain clinic, improved provider-patient communication in the clinic better prepared patients to manage their care

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

qualitatively describe lung CT images obtained from healthy sedated equine neonates, quantitatively characterize lung aeration and distribution of gas and tissue volumes within the lungs, and identify age-related differences if present. We expected that the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

technicians rather than those in teaching roles. 8 The goal of this qualitative, exploratory study was to better understand the role of AVTs. We selected this method of research because there was so little found in the literature, what was found focused on

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

qualitative study. Figure 2 Photomicrographs of a select region of the forebrain of one of the adult male budgerigars described in Figure 1 , showing the distribution of κ-opioid receptor mRNA (A) or μ-opioid receptor mRNA (B) tagged with fluorophores

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. To provide a sense of the degree to which the specific aspects were referred to among the participants, the results are reported by means of qualitative descriptors such as many, a number of, some, or a few. The aspects of communication most

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

linear process, involving back and forth movement between the phases of analysis. 44 As a qualitative study, the data generated were words, not numbers; hence, the findings are reported as descriptive summaries. Although some general frequency patterns

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Polymorphonuclear cells have a critical role in the pathogenesis of bovine mastitis. We have documented that experimentally induced Staphylococcus aureus mastitis is associated with cyclic increase and decrease in the quantity of viable bacteria shed in the milk. Concomitant with this cycling of bacteria is an inverse cycling of the hosts cells within the milk. Such somatic cells were determined to be ≥ 95% polymorphonuclear cells. The quality of these cells was evaluated by measuring their relative efficiency of bacterial killing and phagocytosis at various times during an infection. Host polymorphonuclear cells had as much as 10,000-fold variation in the bactericidal failure rate for staphylococci during cell cycling. The most efficient bactericidal effect was observed at or near the peak of the somatic cell count (scc). The ability of these cycling cells to ingest fluorescent beads was also quantitated by use of flow cytometry. The percentage of phagocytic polymorphonuclear cells that ingested fluorescent latex beads ranged from 15 to 80% of the total cell population during cell cycling, and tended to be optimal at or near peak scc. In addition, the average number of beads ingested varied between 1 and 2 particles/polymorphonuclear cell, with as many as 17% of the phagocytic cells ingesting 4 or more beads at maximal efficiency. Polymorphonuclear cells from quarters infected with S aureus varied quantitatively (total scc) and qualitatively (bactericidal activity and phagocytic ability) during the course of an infection. Not only is the quantitity of host's phagocytic cells in the mammary gland central to the defense mechanism against infection, but the biological activation state appears to be equally important. The role of these cells in the pathogenesis of a cycling infection is presented in a model to explain the cyclic nature of mastitis.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research