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Introduction Sudden renal parenchymal damage due to a variety of etiologies (eg, ureteral obstruction, pyelonephritis, renal ischemia, toxicosis) is an important clinical condition in cats resulting in acute kidney injury (AKI). Considering

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

pyelonephritis; and to summarize bacterial isolates commonly identified by microbial culture of urine samples from these dogs. Materials and Methods Case selection criteria Medical records of the Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital of the University of

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Pyelonephritis was experimentally induced in 10 clinically normal dogs by nephropyelocentesis and introduction of Proteus mirabilis into the randomly chosen right or left renal pelvis. Dogs were examined by nephrosonography and excretory urography before and 2 weeks after infection.

The major nephrosonographic findings of pyelonephritis were renal pelvic dilatation, usually with proximal ureteral dilatation, and a hyperechoic mucosal margin line within the renal pelvis, proximal portion of the ureter, or both. In addition, at least one or more of the following were observed: generalized hyperechoic renal cortex, focal hyperechoic areas within the medulla, and focal hyperechoic or hypoechoic cortical lesions.

Interpretation of excretory urograms resulted in 3 false-negative and 1 false-positive conclusions, compared with the histologic findings. Interpretation of nephrosonograms resulted in 2 false-negative and no false-positive conclusions. Of the kidneys with histologic evidence of pyelonephritis, 73% were detected by excretory urography, whereas 82% were detected by nephrosonography.

Nephrosonography appeared to be useful for detection of mild to moderate cases of acute pyelonephritis that may be be interpreted as such by excretory urography.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli strains isolated from the urine of women with cystitis or pyelonephritis and from fecal samples from dogs and healthy humans.

Design—Cross-sectional survey.

Sample Population—Escherichia coli isolates from 82 women with cystitis, 170 women with pyelonephritis, 45 dogs, and 76 healthy human volunteers.

Procedure—Susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial agents was determined by means of disk diffusion testing as specified by the NCCLS.

Results—Overall, the 4 most common antimicrobial resistance patterns were resistance to ampicillin, sulfisoxazole, trimethoprim, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (n = 45 [12% of all isolates]); ampicillin alone (33 [9%]); ampicillin and sulfisoxazole (29 [8%]); and sulfisoxazole alone (14 [4%]). None of the isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, or piperacillin-tazobactam. Resistance was significantly more common and extensive among isolates from women with cystitis or pyelonephritis than among isolates from healthy humans or dogs. Resistance was least common among isolates from dogs. The only resistance phenotype that was more common among canine isolates than human isolates was resistance to sulfisoxazole alone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that dogs are unlikely to be an important external reservoir of antimicrobial-resistant E coli strains causing infections in humans. On the contrary, the data suggest that dogs conceivably could acquire resistant E coli strains from humans. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:368–373)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. There was turbid fluid within the left renal pelvis and linear white foci in the renal parenchyma suggestive of pyelonephritis. Consistent with this finding was erythema and expansion of the apical bladder mucosa with marked cloudy urine suggestive of an

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

cultures of urine samples obtained from the right kidney and the urinary bladder yielded positive results, which suggested a diagnosis of ascending pyelonephritis. Treatment with amoxicillin trihydrate–clavulanate potassium was immediately started, and the

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association