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. The drug was used extralabel as no statin is FDA-approved for use in Psittaciformes. Veterinarians should adhere to compounding regulations and be aware that pharmacokinetic properties may differ between compounded and FDA-approved products. When

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

and atlases are available on the CT anatomy of the head of Psittaciformes, 10,11 but details regarding craniofacial articulations are generally lacking. Paired pterygoid muscles (divided into ventral and dorsal parts) originate from the palatine and

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Objective

To determine safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an inactivated avian polyomavirus vaccine in nonbudgerigar psittacine birds that varied in age, species, and immunologic status.

Animals

Safety of the vaccine was evaluated in 1,823 psittacines representing more than 80 species. Immunogenicity was evaluated in 285 birds (260 of various Psittaciformes species, 25 chickens). Efficacy was evaluated in 104 birds (78 of various Psittaciformes species, 26 chickens).

Procedures

Safety was evaluated by vaccinating birds that were determined to be seronegative or seropositive (titer > 1:10) prior to vaccination. Birds were then evaluated for clinically detectable systemic or local reactions for 2 months to 2 years. Immunogenicity was evaluated by testing for virus-neutralizing antibodies, vaccinating each bird twice, and then testing for a significant change in antibody titer. Efficacy was evaluated by vaccinating birds, followed in 2 to 4 weeks by intramuscular or intravenous challenge exposure. After challenge exposure, protection was evaluated by attempting to recover virus from tissues or by observing birds for clinical signs of disease and testing for a significant change in titer.

Conclusions

Avian polyomavirus vaccine is safe, immunogenic, and efficacious for use in multiple species of mature and immature psittacines.

Clinical Relevance

Until now, prevention of polyomavirus infection in psittacine birds could only be accomplished through strict isolation to reduce potential exposure to the virus. The USDA-registered inactivated avian polyomavirus vaccine can safely be used to protect vaccinates from infection and control spread of this virus in flocks. (Am J Vet Res 1998,59:143–148)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—A 13-year-old female intact Moluccan cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis) was evaluated because of coelomic distention, presumed to be secondary to an abdominal hernia. The patient also had a history of rapid weight gain and polyuria and polydipsia.

Clinical Findings—Ultrasonography was used to confirm the existence of a pseudohernia that appeared to contain the small intestines, pancreas, and reproductive tract. Results of plasma biochemical analysis revealed hyperglycemia, hypophosphatemia, and high nonfasting bile acid concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase activity. A CBC revealed a relative heterophilia with a concomitant lymphopenia and mild monocytosis. Histologic evaluation of a liver biopsy specimen indicated chronic hepatic lipidosis. Despite a strong clinical suspicion of hyperadrenocorticism, ACTH stimulation test results were equivocal.

Treatment and Outcome—The pseudohernia was strengthened with a prolene mesh. Despite ongoing medical and surgical care, the patient developed complications associated with the herniorrhaphy and was euthanatized. The clinical suspicion of hyperadrenocorticism was confirmed on the basis of histologic evaluation of the pituitary gland by use of special stains.

Clinical Relevance—To our knowledge, pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism has not been previously confirmed in Psittaciformes. The condition should be considered in birds with clinical signs consistent with those observed in mammals. For the cockatoo of this report, ACTH stimulation test results were equivocal and additional diagnostic tests should be developed for avian patients.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

isolates MIC 50 (μg/mL) MIC 90 (μg/mL) MIC range (μg/mL) Acinetobacter spp Anseriforme, Psittaciforme, and NR 5 4.0 8.0 4.0 to > 8.0 Escherichia coli Anseriforme, Falconiforme, Galliforme, Psittaciforme, and NR 51 < 0

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

neoplasia has been reported less frequently in other Psittaciformes. 3 Although not identified in the bird of this report, functional ovarian tumors can also cause polyostotic hyperostosis (increased medullary bone density). 4 Another cause of ovarian

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-dependent hyperadrenocorticism can develop in Psittaciformes, causing signs similar to those seen in mammals, and that ACTH stimulation testing in affected birds may yield equivocal results. See PAGE 394 Marsupialization of a hemorrhagic intramedullary vascular

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

commonly used in research, such as Anseriformes (ducks and geese), Columbiformes (pigeons and doves), Galliformes (chickens and quails), Passeriformes (passerines and songbirds), and Psittaciformes (parrots). The section on anatomy and physiology provides a

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Columbiformes and Psittaciformes (budgerigars, Patagonian conures, and pigeons). We chose to study pharmacokinetics of flunixin in small (budgerigar) and medium-sized (Patagonian conure) parrots because flunixin meglumine is recommended as an analgesic

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

T he Psittaciformes order contains some of the most popular species maintained in captivity in zoos or as companion animals. These species present diverse diseases whose diagnosis requires the use of complementary tests. Inhaled anesthesia has

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research