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A 7-year-old sexually intact nulliparous female Italian Mastiff weighing 42 kg (92.4 lb) was admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy, with a 3-day history of vaginal prolapse. Proestrus and estrus

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Introduction A 4-month-old 4.2 kg sexually intact female mixed-breed (Maltese-Dachshund) dog was presented to Northeast Veterinary Referral Hospital for evaluation of rectal and vesicular tenesmus, intermittent rectal prolapse with fecal

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Uterine prolapse, the expulsion of the uterus externally through the vaginal canal, is an uncommon problem in mares, but its presentation is a challenging and life-threatening emergency. There are multiple suggested causes and correlations to

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

prolapse/detachment. 2) Periocular skin. Perivascular dermatitis and folliculitis, mild to moderate, multifocal, chronic. 3) Os palatinum/marrow. Osteomyelitis, moderate, focally extensive, chronic, granulomatous, with bone resorption, and intralesional

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A 12-month study was undertaken in a 9-veterinarian dairy practice to determine patterns of uterine prolapse and factors associated with posttreatment survival. Of 220,000 cows in herds visited by veterinarians from the practice, 200 (0.09%) developed prolapses mostly (155/169 with data) in the first 24 hours after calving. Most cows (130/200) had prolapses during fall and winter months, and assistance was required in 47 of 200 calvings that resulted in prolapses.

Treatment of affected cows (n = 196) consisted of cleansing and replacement of the uterus, insertion of perivulvar retention sutures, local and systemic administration of antibiotics, and parenteral administration of dexamethasone and oxytocin. Calcium was administered to cows with milk fever (n = 117) and to multiparous cows without milk fever attended by veterinarian 9 (n = 8). Crude recovery rate after 2 weeks was 72.4%, but recovery was significantly better if the calf was born alive (P = 0.001), the cow was primiparous (P = 0.03), the cow did not have stage-3 milk fever (P = 0.003), or if the cow was attended by veterinarian 9 (P = 0.01). Time to treatment was not significantly associated with recovery, but affected cows were treated mostly (127/156) within 2 hours of occurrence of the prolapse. By multivariable analysis, presence of a liveborn calf, parity, and lack of stage-3 milk fever, but not attending veterinarian, were significant (P < 0.05) prognostic indicators of 2-week survival.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Eighteen prolapses of the gland of the third eyelid in 17 Beagles were randomly allocated to 3 groups, which included nontreated (group 1, n = 6), excised (group 2, n = 4), and surgically repositioned (group 3, n = 8) glands. A Schirmer tear test (STT) was performed on affected and normal (control) eyes for 5 consecutive days on weeks 0 (baseline), 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 18, 20, and 24. All prolapsed third eyelid glands were excised and examined histologically.

Ten female and 7 male Beagles were used in the prospective study. Mean age at prolapse was 35.1 weeks (range, 6 to 89 weeks). Control STT data revealed a population mean of 22.2 ± 2.1 mm/min. Complications developed in 4 of 6 eyes when the gland was allowed to remain in a prolapsed position. Complications for group-1 eyes were significantly (P < 0.005) greater than those for eyes in groups 2 and 3 (0 of 12). Comparison of affected and control eye baseline data revealed decreased STT values for eyes with prolapsed glands (P < 0.01). Mean differences between affected and control eyes were 2.2, 2.0, and 3.4 mm/min for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. A significant (P < 0.001) decrease in lacrimation (0.2 to 3.1 mm/min) in group-2 eyes was detected after removal of the gland. Tear production for affected eyes of nontreated dogs fluctuated above and below that of control eyes prior to excision of the prolapsed gland of the third eyelid; however, with time, affected and control eye STT values were not significantly different. Despite an increase in lacrimation after treatment of group-3 eyes, comparison of affected and control eye STT values revealed a persistent decrease in lacrimation (0 to 2.2 mm/min); however, reduction of lacrimation after surgical repositioning was less than that which resulted if the prolapsed gland of the third eyelid was excised (P < 0.02). Histologic changes in the gland of the third eyelid were mild, and significant differences were not detected among the 3 groups.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To develop an economic model for comparing cost-effectiveness of medical and surgical treatment versus replacement of beef bulls with preputial prolapse.

Design

Economic analysis.

Sample Population

Estimates determined from medical records of bulls treated for preputial prolapse at our hospital and from information about treatment of bulls published elsewhere.

Procedure

Annual depreciation cost for treatment (ADCT) and replacement (ADCR) were calculated. Total investment for an injured bull equaled the sum of salvage value, maintenance cost, and expected cost of the treatment option under consideration. Total investment for a replacement bull was purchase price. Net present value of cost was calculated for each year of bull use. Sensitivity analyses were constructed to determine the value that would warrant treatment of an injured bull.

Results

The decision to treat was indicated when ADCT was less than ADCR. In our example, it was more cost-effective for owners to cull an injured bull. The ADCR was $97 less than ADCT for medical treatment ($365 vs $462) and $280 less than ADCT for surgical treatment ($365 vs $645). Likewise, net present value of cost values indicated that it was more cost-effective for owners to cull an injured bull. Sensitivity analysis indicated treatment decisions were justified on the basis of replacement value or planned number of breeding seasons remaining for the bull.

Clinical Implications

The model described here can be used by practitioners to provide an objective basis to guide decision making of owners who seek advice on whether to treat or replace bulls with preputial prolapse. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:856–859)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association