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and tooth loss. 10 – 12 The usage of probiotics may be effective in the treatment of oral complications such as halitosis or periodontitis. 13 Enterococcus faecium is a gram-positive, non-hemolytic, or gamma-hemolytic bacteria belonging to the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, probiotics, antimicrobials, fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), and supportive care medications. 1 , 6 , 8 – 14 Treatment of IAD has been a focus of multiple recent clinical trials. These have provided new evidence-based recommendations for the management of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

; therefore, enhancement of the colonic microflora by dietary interventions such as probiotics may be used to maintain gastrointestinal health. Probiotics are defined as live microbial feed supplements, which beneficially affect the host animal by improving

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

supplemental lactic acid bacteria. Currently, several commercially manufactured veterinary probiotics are advertised to contain Lactobacillus spp. These products offer readily available, potential sources of oxalate-degrading bacteria that are formulated

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate contents of commercial probiotic products marketed for veterinary or human administration.

Design—Microbiologic culture assay.

Sample Population—8 veterinary probiotics and 5 human probiotics.

Procedure—Quantitative bacteriologic culture was performed on all products, and isolates were identified via biochemical characteristics. Comparison of actual contents versus label claims was performed.

Results—Label descriptions of organisms and concentrations accurately described the actual contents of only 2 of 13 products. Five veterinary products did not specifically list their contents. Most products contained low concentrations of viable organisms. Five products did not contain 1 or more of the stated organisms, and 3 products contained additional species. Some products contained organisms with no reported probiotic effects; some of these organisms could be pathogens.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most commercial veterinary probiotic preparations are not accurately represented by label claims. Quality control appears to be poor for commercial veterinary probiotics. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:794–797)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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Probiotics are defined as “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host.” 1 Ideally, probiotics administered to clinically affected patients should originate in the species being treated and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

locally and outside the GIT, in part as a result of alternations in microbial by-product formation (eg, increased serum d -lactate concentrations in cats with GIT disease). 6,12–16 Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when consumed in adequate

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate viability of a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus acidophilusin a dry dog food, determine its ability to survive transit through the gastrointestinal tract and populate the colon, and assess its effects on intestinal and systemic parameters.

Animals—15 adult dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were sequentially fed a dry control food for 2 weeks, the same food supplemented with > 109 L acidophilus for 4 weeks, and the control food again for 2 weeks. Fecal score was assessed daily, and fecal and blood samples were collected for enumeration of bacterial populations and measurement of hematologic variables.

Results—Recovery of L acidophilus from the supplemented food was 71% and 63% at the start and end of the study, respectively, indicating that the bacteria were able to survive manufacture and storage. The probiotic bacterium was detected in feces via ribotyping and RNA gene sequencing during the probiotic administration phase but not 2 weeks after cessation of administration. Administration of the probiotic-supplemented food was associated with increased numbers of fecal lactobacilli and decreased numbers of clostridial organisms. There were significant increases in RBCs, Hct, hemoglobin concentration, neutrophils, monocytes, and serum immunoglobin G concentration and reductions in RBC fragility and serum NO concentration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data indicate that L acidophilus can be successfully incorporated into a dry dog food, survive transit through the canine gastrointestinal tract, and populate the colon and are associated with local and systemic changes. This probiotic bacterium may have the potential to enhance intestinal health and improve immune function in dogs. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:338–343)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

gastrointestinal microbiota following antimicrobial therapy. 10 The use of novel probiotics to target the elimination of UPEC from the gastrointestinal reservoir could improve recolonization rates and promote antimicrobial stewardship. E coli strain Nissle 1917

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

various age after hatching were used to assess effects of the probiotic on development of the intestinal microbiota of chickens. All experiments were reviewed and approved by the University of Georgia Animal Use Committee and were performed in compliance

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research