Owning backyard poultry has become increasingly popular in cities such as Seattle, Portland, New York, Chicago, and San Francisco and is slowly becoming a national trend. 1–6 Historical data from the USDA indicates that from 1988 to 2007, the
Computed tomography is a noninvasive technique that is commonly used to quantitatively assess bone quality in poultry. 6 Previously reported CT measures of bone quality include BMD of the sternal carina (keel bone), tibiotarsus, femur, and
Feed Control Officials, 9 PBP meal consists of ground, rendered, clean parts of the carcass of slaughtered poultry, such as necks, feet, undeveloped eggs, and intestines, exclusive of feathers, except in such amounts as might occur unavoidably in good
In the report “Egg residue considerations for treatment of backyard poultry” ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 247;12:1388–1395), chlortetracycline products approved for use in laying hens were inadvertently omitted from Table 2 . Table 2 should be as
In recent years, backyard poultry flocks have become increasingly popular in urban areas throughout the United States. Results of a 2010 USDA study 1 of 4 US cities (Denver, Los Angeles, Miami, and New York) indicated that 1% of households
, the study further sought to determine the influence of several ingredients in the supplement by evaluating results when poultry flavor, which putatively acts as a palatability enhancer, was included or excluded. This allowed for evaluation of the
Objective—To identify risk factors associated with the spread of low pathogenicity H7N2 avian influenza (AI) virus among commercial poultry farms in western Virginia during an outbreak in 2002.
Procedure—Questionnaires were used to collect information about farm characteristics, biosecurity measures, and husbandry practices on 151 infected premises (128 turkey and 23 chicken farms) and 199 noninfected premises (167 turkey and 32 chicken farms).
Results—The most significant risk factor for AI infection was disposal of dead birds by rendering (odds ratio [OR], 7.3). In addition, age ≥ 10 weeks (OR for birds aged 10 to 19 weeks, 4.9; OR for birds aged ≥ 20 weeks, 4.3) was a significant risk factor regardless of poultry species involved. Other significant risk factors included use of nonfamily caretakers and the presence of mammalian wildlife on the farm. Factors that were not significantly associated with infection included use of various routine biosecurity measures, food and litter sources, types of domestic animals on the premises, and presence of wild birds on the premises.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that an important factor contributing to rapid early spread of AI virus infection among commercial poultry farms during this outbreak was disposal of dead birds via rendering off-farm. Because of the highly infectious nature of AI virus and the devastating economic impact of outbreaks, poultry farmers should consider carcass disposal techniques that do not require offfarm movement, such as burial, composting, or incineration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:767–772)
submitted to the Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center at the University of Georgia.
The conditions in both housing facilities were inspected, and the litter in the scratch areas was damp throughout. Humidity and temperature within the housing facilities
have close contact with a hen's microbiota, and newly hatched birds encounter a rich and diverse microbial environment from which they acquire their own intestinal microbiota. However, hatching has been automated to maximize commercial poultry