agglomeration of widened but incomplete sulci that extends toward the right lateral ventricle (B).
Orthogonal thoracic radiographs and cisternal CSF analysis were unremarkable. Sympathomimetic pharmacologicaltesting with ocular application of 1
well as pharmacologictesting. 10 , 11 , 13 Commonly reported clinical signs and general physical examination findings associated with canine dysautonomia (CD) include lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, vomiting or regurgitation, diarrhea, tenesmus
Objective—To determine signalment, history, clinical
findings, results of autonomic function testing and
other antemortem diagnostic tests, and pathologic
findings in dogs with dysautonomia.
Animals—65 dogs with dysautonomia.
Procedure—Case records of 68 dogs with a diagnosis
of dysautonomia were reviewed; inclusion criteria
included histologic confirmation of dysautonomia or
clinical signs and results of pharmacologic testing
consistent with dysautonomia.
Results—65 dogs fulfilled all criteria for dysautonomia.
Dogs from rural environments were overrepresented,
and cases of dysautonomia were reported for
every month, although the highest number of cases
was reported in February and March. Vomiting was
the most common clinical sign, followed by diarrhea,
signs of anorexia and depression, weight loss, and
dysuria. The most common physical examination finding
was decreased or absent anal tone, followed by
absent pupillary light reflexes and elevated nictitating
membrane. Results of pharmacologic te sting were
consistent with dysautonomia, although no single
test was 100% sensitive. Histologic lesions consistent
with dysautonomia were found in the autonomic
ganglia, brainstem nuclei, and ventral horns of the
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dysautonomia
is an endemic disease in Kansas, and a high
index of suspicion of the disease can be made by
combining clinical signs, physical examination findings,
and results of pharmacologic testing. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2002;220:633–639)
postganglionic or preganglionic sympathetic neurons with pharmacologicaltesting. The application of 0.1-10% phenylephrine will resolve the symptoms of a postganglionic (third order) lesion due to complete denervation hypersensitivity at the postsynaptic membrane
electrophysiologic and pharmacologicaltesting. 3 Administration of a single dose of neostigmine methylsulfate can be used to help strengthen a presumptive diagnosis of MG, but a negative response does not preclude this diagnosis. 3,10
pharmacologicaltesting, such as the atropine response test, pilocarpine response test, and ID histamine test, along with results of tear production testing. 2,11,12 A definitive diagnosis requires histologic examination of autonomic ganglia and identification of
additional 0.55 mL of blood was collected from each flamingo prior to drug administration for preparation of blank plasma samples for pharmacologicaltesting.
During the study, all 16 flamingos were housed together in a holding room measuring 4.3 × 3.0 × 2
syndrome). The superficial corneal ulceration persisted in the left eye. The presence of permanent posterior synechiae, which had not resolved with topical administration of atropine, precluded localization of sympathetic denervation with pharmacologic
of enrofloxacin was widely accepted after pharmacologictesting revealed that such use achieved higher peak plasma drug concentrations, increased bactericidal efficacy, decreased risk of bacterial resistance, and provided increased ease of