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Peripheral neuropathy is an uncommon cause of forelimb lameness in horses. 1 This condition can involve the nerve roots of the brachial plexus, the brachial plexus itself, or nerves arising from it. The ventral roots from the sixth to the eighth

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

ILP shares many pathophysiologic, histopathologic, and clinical features with inherited peripheral neuropathies seen in humans, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type 2 and distal hereditary motor neuropathy, making it a promising spontaneous

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, head-shaking syndrome with paresthesia and dysesthesia of the face attributable to sensory trigeminal nerve disorder, and hypothyroidism. The 2 nerve dysfunctions were considered as peripheral neuropathies that were most likely caused by hypothyroidism

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To identify risk factors associated with acquired megaesophagus in dogs.


Case-control study.


136 dogs with acquired megaesophagus (case dogs); 272 dogs from the general hospital population and 151 dogs that underwent thyroid-stimulating hormone response tests (control dogs). All dogs were more than 6 months old.


Medical records of dogs in which megaesophagus was diagnosed during a 10-year period were reviewed. Inclusion criteria included regurgitation or vomiting, onset of clinical signs at more than 6 months of age, and radiographic evidence of generalized esophageal dilatation. Dogs with intra- or extraesophageal obstructive disease, brain stem disease, or neck trauma were excluded from analyses. Statistical analyses included odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and two-tailed t-tests. Control dogs were frequency matched to case dogs on the basis of year of diagnosis.


Dogs with megaesophagus ranged from 0.75 to 18 years old (mean, 8.1 years) and were significantly older and heavier than control dogs. More males than females were affected, but sex and reproductive status were not associated with megaesophagus. German Shepherd Dogs, Golden Retrievers, and Irish Setters were at increased risk for developing megaesophagus. Peripheral neuropathies, laryngeal paralysis, acquired myasthenia gravis, esophagitis, and chronic or recurrent gastric dilatation with or without volvulus were associated with an increased risk of developing megaesophagus. Hypothyroidism was not associated with megaesophagus.

Clinical Implications

Dogs with acquired megaesophagus should be evaluated for peripheral neuropathies, laryngeal paralysis, acquired myasthenia gravis, esophagitis, and chronic or recurrent gastric dilatation with or without volvulus. These dogs may be evaluated for hypothyroidism; however, this study did not reveal a clear association between hypothyroidism and acquired megaesophagus. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1406–1412)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Serum free thyroxine (fT4), thyroxine (T4), and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were determined in 62 healthy dogs, 51 dogs with hypothyroidism, and 59 euthyroid dogs with concurrent dermatopathy or concurrent illness for which hypothyroidism was a diagnostic consideration. Status of thyroid function was based on history, physical findings, results of thyrotropin response testing, requirement for thyroid hormone replacement therapy, and in 31 dogs, on results of histologic examination of a thyroid gland biopsy specimen. Serum fT4 concentration was determined, using a single-stage radioimmunoassay. Mean (±sd)serumfT4 concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) greater in healthy dogs vs dogs with hypothyroidism (0.51 ± 0.27 ng/dl vs 0.10 ± 0.07 ng/dl). Significant difference in mean serum fT4 concentration was not evident between dogs with hypothyroidism and euthyroid dogs with hyperadrenocorticism (0.16 ± 0.13 ng/dl) or peripheral neuropathy (0.19 ± 0.10 ng/dl). Mean serum fT4 concentration in all other groups of euthyroid dogs with concurrent illness was similar to values in healthy dogs and was significantly (P < 0.05) greater, compared with values in dogs with hypothyroidism.

Similar results were found for mean serum T4 concentration. Comparison of serum fT4 vs T4 concentration revealed: sensitivity, 0.97 vs 0.98; specificity, 0.78 vs 0.73; predictive value for a positive test result, 0.79 vs 0.80; predictive value for a negative test result, 0.97 vs 0.97; and accuracy, 0.78 vs 0.86, respectively. Ten (17%) and 12 (20%) of 59 serum fT4 and T4 concentrations, respectively, were inappropriately low in euthyroid dogs with concurrent illness. Of euthyroid dogs with concurrent illness, those with hyperadrenocorticism, peripheral neuropathy, or idiopathic generalized megaesophagus had the lowest serum fT4 and T4 concentrations. Significant difference in mean serum T3 concentration was not detected among healthy dogs, dogs with hypothyroidism, or euthyroid dogs with concurrent illness. Measurement of serum fT4 concentration using the single-stage radioimmunoassay, did not provide additional information about thyroid gland function other than that gained by measurement of serum T4 concentration.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine toxic effects of streptozocin given in combination with a diuresis protocol in dogs and establish whether streptozocin is efficacious in treatment of pancreatic islet cell tumors in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—17 dogs.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed to obtain information regarding signalment, tumor stage and staging tests performed, number of streptozocin treatments, adverse effects, results of biochemical and hematologic monitoring during streptozocin treatment, tumor dimensions, duration of normoglycemia, and date of death, when applicable. Dogs were compared with a historical control group of 15 dogs treated surgically and medically.

Results—58 treatments were administered to the 17 dogs. Only 1 dog developed azotemia. Serum alanine aminotransferase activity increased in some dogs but decreased when treatment was discontinued. Hematologic toxicoses were rare. Vomiting during administration was uncommon but occasionally severe. Two dogs developed diabetes mellitus after receiving 5 doses. Median duration of normoglycemia for 14 dogs with stage-II or -III insulinoma treated with streptozocin was 163 days (95% confidence interval, 16 to 309 days), which was not significantly different from that for the control dogs (90 days; 95% confidence interval, 0 to 426 days). Two dogs had rapid resolution of paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathy, and 2 others had measurable reductions in tumor size.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that streptozocin can be administered safely to dogs at a dosage of 500 mg/m2, IV, every 3 weeks when combined with a protocol for induction of diuresis and may be efficacious in the treatment of dogs with metastatic pancreatic islet cell tumors. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:811–818)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Assessment Anatomic diagnosis Problem Rule out location Left facial drooping and absent left palpebral reflex Left cranial nerve VII Right hind limb monoparesis L4-S2 vertebral region or peripheral neuropathy

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

treatment, and all had an excellent long-term outcome. Findings suggested that selected dogs with spinal epidural empyema may be successfully managed with medical treatment alone. See page 1180 Equine Peripheral neuropathy of a forelimb in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association