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the gingival sulcus and tooth surface. The ensuing immune response against these bacteria can result in the development of periodontitis. 7 – 11 Periodontitis is the most frequently encountered oral disease in dogs, with a prevalence of approximately

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

periodontitis in human medicine. 3–6 The targeted plasma concentration for an SDD is recommended to be < 1 μg/mL, which is the MIC in humans. 7 In canine dentistry, topical administration of doxycycline can resolve periodontal inflammation and improve

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine patterns of alveolar bone loss (periodontitis) and other lesions evident on fullmouth survey radiographs of cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—147 cats.

Procedure—Full-mouth radiographs were evaluated for evidence and severity of alveolar bone loss, odontoclastic resorption lesions (ORL), retained roots, missing teeth, signs of endodontic disease secondary to periodontitis, and apical resorption.

Results—106 (72%) cats had some degree of periodontitis, 100 (68%) were missing teeth, 98 (67%) had ORL, 78 (53%) had expansion of the buccal alveolar bone at 1 or more canine teeth, 75 (51%) had retained roots, 48 (33%) had apical resorption, and 12 (8%) had signs of endodontic disease secondary to periodontitis. Cats < 4 years old were not significantly more likely than the general population to have normal alveolar bone height. Prevalence of ORL increased with age, but cats ≥ 13 years old were less likely than the general population to have moderate or severe generalized periodontitis. Purebred cats were not significantly more likely to have periodontitis or ORL than mixed-breed cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that periodontitis is common in cats and that horizontal bone loss is the most common radiographic pattern of alveolar bone loss. Purebred cats were not more likely than mixed-breed cats to have ORL or periodontitis, but when they did have periodontitis, it was more likely to be moderate to severe. Cats with ORL were less likely than cats without ORL to have normal alveolar bone height and more likely to have severe focal vertical bone loss. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:230—234)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the clinical and microbiological efficacy of minocycline in a subgingival local delivery system as an adjunct to tooth scaling and root planing in dogs with periodontal disease.

Animals

Nine 4- to 7-year-old Beagles with periodontitis.

Procedure

After scaling of teeth and root planing, 2 treatment and 1 or 2 control sites were selected for each dog: treated sites (n = 18) received minocycline hydrochloride periodontal formulation and control sites (n = 12) received ointment base (no minocycline). Gingival crevicular fluid was collected at a baseline (prior to treatment) and at week 4. Clinical and microbiological effects were evaluated and compared among sites.

Results

In minocycline-treated sites, clinical indices were significantly decreased at week 4, compared with those at baseline. Minocycline-treated sites were associated with a significant decrease in gingival crevicular fluid, probing depth, and bleeding on probing values, compared with those for control sites at week 4. Compared with that for control sites, total bacteria count in periodontal pockets of minocycline-treated sites had an obvious tendency to decrease by week 4. Proportions of Porphyromonas and Fusobacterium spp were significantly decreased at week 4, compared with proportions at control sites and with pretreatment (baseline) values.

Conclusions

When used as an adjunct to tooth scaling and root planing, minocycline periodontal formulation stimulated favorable clinical and antimicrobial responses. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:464–467)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical, enzymatic, and microbiologic effects of controlled-release localized administration of minocycline on dogs with periodontitis.

Animals—Five adult Beagles with periodontitis.

Procedure—After tooth scaling and root planing, 2 treatment, 1 placebo, and 1 control site were selected for each dog. Treatment sites (n = 10) received a periodontal formulation of minocycline hydrochloride, placebo sites (5) received ointment without minocycline, and control sites (5) did not receive ointment. Treatments were administered 4 times at weekly intervals. Peptidase activity and clinical and microbiologic effects were evaluated and compared among sites for 17 weeks.

Results—Bleeding of the gums on probing (BOP) and pocket depth (PD) improved at the treatment site and were maintained for 13 weeks after treatment. However, BOP and PD in placebo and control sites increased from weeks 9 to 17. Peptidase activity in the periodontal pocket decreased noticeably from week 1 to 17, compared with baseline values for the treatment site. However, peptidase activity for placebo and control sites increased and were above baseline values on week 9 and week 13, respectively. Total bacterial counts decreased by 90% for treatment sites and remained at that value for 13 weeks. However, for placebo and control sites, bacterial counts increased and reached the baseline value on week 17.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increased peptidase activity is correlated with the progression of periodontitis in dogs. Treatment with minocycline, using a localized delivery system, was effective in dogs for at least 13 weeks after cessation of drug administration. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1349–1352)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Conditions such as periodontitis and FRLs have also been suggested to play a role in FCGS. 2 Diagnosis can be made on the basis of clinical findings, but determining the full extent of the dental lesions requires probing and full-mouth dental radiography. 10

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

been applied to various types and locations of lesion, including gingivitis and periodontitis that affect particular regions of the mouth and stomatitis that comprises more generalized inflammation of the mouth. Feline chronic gingivostomatitis is a

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

and tooth loss. 10 – 12 The usage of probiotics may be effective in the treatment of oral complications such as halitosis or periodontitis. 13 Enterococcus faecium is a gram-positive, non-hemolytic, or gamma-hemolytic bacteria belonging to the

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

point of reference. The 31 dental disorders were grouped into 10 categories for statistical analysis. Those categories were missing teeth, abnormal eruption, rotation, abnormally shaped roots, abnormal number of roots, periodontitis, loss of tooth

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

benefits to the host but can also be involved in various disease processes, such as periodontitis. 3 With the development of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies that allow for culture-independent analysis of the microbiome, these complex

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research