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communities with antagonistic and mutualistic inter- and intraspecies associations. 7 However, the oral cavity microbiome can also contribute to the progression of periodontal disease, which affects almost all dogs during their lifetime. 8 – 12 Studies of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Oral disease is the most common physical examination finding in all age categories of dogs, with PD being the most commonly diagnosed oral disease. 1,2 Periodontal disease is inflammation and infection of the periodontium compromising the gingiva

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Periodontal disease is characterized by inflammation and destruction of some or all of the tooth-supporting structures (periodontum), which include the gingiva (gingivitis), cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone (periodontitis

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

number of bacterial oral pathogens have been identified by means of 16S RNA sequencing in dogs with periodontal disease, showing that the oral cavity is characterized by a higher abundance of bacteria of the genera Bergeyella , Moraxella

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Periodontal disease is a common acquired condition in dogs that can cause substantial morbidity and related health-care costs. 1 Untreated periodontal disease can lead to tooth loss, jaw fractures, facial abscesses, and oronasal fistulas 2 and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

other hand, bacterial species commonly found in the oral cavity have been isolated from the heart valves of dogs with endocarditis, 13–15 and periodontal disease has been associated with histologic abnormalities in a variety of organs, including the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Introduction The field of veterinary dentistry has grown significantly in the last 40 to 50 years. Dentistry is increasingly recognized as a critical part of small animal practice. This in part due to periodontal disease (gingivitis and

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human patients. Periodontal disease is a common but preventable condition in cats. Published population-based estimates of feline PD range from 3% to 13.9%, with prevalence increasing with increasing age. 31,32 The estimated overall prevalence of PD (56

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum total antioxidant capacities (TACs) correlate with the degree of severity of periodontal disease in dogs.

Animals—41 Toy and Miniature Poodles.

Procedure—After assessment of the degree of severity of naturally occurring periodontitis, GCF samples from both maxillary fourth premolars and a blood sample were collected from each dog. The condition of the periodontium of the entire dentition and at each site of GCF collection was recorded. Clinical parameters assessed included plaque index, gingival index, and probing depth. Radiographic analysis of alveolar bone level was also performed. Total antioxidant capacity was measured in GCF and serum samples by use of a commercial kit.

Results—Dogs with gingivitis and minimal periodontitis had significantly higher TAC in GCF than dogs with advanced periodontitis. Bivariate regression analysis revealed significant negative correlations between TAC in GCF and clinical parameters and age. The TAC in serum was significantly negatively correlated with the degree of gingival inflammation but was not significantly correlated with age.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—TAC in GCF is related to the degree of severity of periodontal disease in dogs. This is likely the result of release of reactive oxygen species by activated phagocytes and fibroblasts in the inflamed periodontal tissues. The results of our study suggest that the local delivery of antioxidants may be a useful adjunctive treatment for periodontitis in dogs. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1584–1588)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

In the article “Association of periodontal disease, oral procedures, and other clinical findings with bacterial endocarditis in dogs” ( JAVMA 2009;234:100-107), values in Table 2 for number of control dogs with evidence of immunosuppression and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association