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modification of the free-hand technique known as the pedicle-probing technique. 12 Although the use of 3DPGs has become increasingly popular in veterinary spine surgery and is associated with a very high rate of accuracy, 2 – 6 the hardware and software

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

are also very low, with no difference between veterinary students and veterinarians. The ovarian pedicle tie (OPT) procedure, 5 also known as autoligation of the ovarian pedicle, is frequently used in HQHVSN clinics for female cats undergoing

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

buffering. We chose to perform these experiments in rats with bilateral renal pedicle ligation to allow evaluation of the acid-base effects of the administration of water to the body and the subsequent extracellular and intracellular buffering in a static

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Blood flow to the semitendinosus muscle was studied in 12 dogs after ligation of either the proximal or distal vascular pedicle and elevation of the muscle from its normal position. Using 15-μm-diameter radioactive microspheres, flow was measured at rest, 6 and 18 days after muscle elevation and pedicle ligation. Mean blood flow in the proximal region of the muscle 6 and 18 days after ligation of the caudal gluteal (proximal) pedicle was not significantly different from mean blood flow calculated in the middle and distal regions of the muscle. There was also no significant difference in mean blood flow among proximal, middle, and distal regions of the muscle, 6 and 18 days after ligation of the distal caudal femoral (distal) pedicle. There was significantly (P < 0.05) increased blood flow between group-A (ligation of caudal gluteal artery) and group-C (operated-control) muscles, 6 and 18 days after surgery. There was no loss of muscle fiber striations or nuclei, or presence of fibrous tissue that might have indicated ischemic necrosis in any of the experimental groups. These results indicate that the entire semitendinosus muscle can be sustained by the blood flow from either of its 2 vascular pedicles, which reinforces its potential as a muscle flap.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The efficacy of a nerve muscle pedicle (nmp) graft in restoring upper airway function was evaluated in exercising horses with induced left laryngeal hemiplegia. The nmp graft was created from the first cervical nerve and the omohyoideus muscle and transplanted into the left cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle. Seven adult Standardbreds were trained to exercise on a treadmill inclined at 6.38°. With the horses at rest and exercising at 4.2 and 7.0 m/s, the following variables were recorded: peak inspiratory and expiratory transupper airway pressures (defined as the pressure difference between a lateral tracheal catheter and a mask catheter), peak inspiratory and expiratory air flow, inspiratory and expiratory impedance, tidal volume, minute ventilation, heart rate, and respiratory frequency. Measurements were made before left recurrent laryngeal neurectomy (lrln), 28 days after lrln, and 12, 24, and 52 weeks after the nmp graft (n = 5) or sham operation (n = 2). Before lrln, exercise increased inspiratory and expiratory air flow and transupper airway pressure, whereas the impedance was unchanged. After lrln, transupper airway inspiratory pressure and impedance were significantly greater and inspiratory air flow was significantly less than baseline values at 7.0 m/s. The sham operation did not improve airway function. Twelve weeks after insertion of the nmp graft, inspiratory impedance and inspiratory air flow were significantly different (improved) from lrln values. Twenty-four weeks after insertion of the nmp graft, inspiratory impedance was not significantly different from lrln values. Fifty-two weeks after insertion of the nmp graft, inspiratory impedance was not significantly different from the baseline value and was significantly less than the value after lrln. We conclude that the nerve muscle pedicle graft can restore upper airway function within 52 weeks in horses with induced left laryngeal hemiplegia.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A nerve muscle pedicle (nmp) graft was placed in the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (cad) muscle of 6 horses with induced left laryngeal hemiplegia. The nmp graft was created by use of the first cervical nerve and omohyoideus muscle. In 1 horse (control), the first cervical nerve was transected after placement of the nmp graft. One year after the surgical procedure, horses were examined endoscopically and then anesthetized. While the larynx was observed endoscopically, the first cervical nerve was stimulated. Horses were subsequently euthanatized, and the larynx was harvested.

Prior to anesthesia, the endoscopic appearance of the larynx of all horses was typical of laryngeal hemiplegia. During anesthesia, stimulation of the first cervical nerve produced vigorous abduction of the left aiytenoid in principal horses but not in the control horse. The right cricoarytenoideus lateralis and cad muscles were grossly and histologically normal. Also, the left cricoarytenoideus lateralis was atrophic in all horses as was the left cad muscle of the control horse. In contrast, the left cad muscle harvested from principal horses had evidence of reinnervation with type 1 or type 2 fiber grouping. One year after the nmp graft procedure, horses with left laryngeal hemiplegia had reinnervation of the left cad muscle. In another study, reinnervation was sufficient to allow normal laryngeal function during exercise. Combined, these data suggest that the nmp graft procedure is a viable technique for the treatment of left laryngeal hemiplegia in horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

pin or screw, dorsal vertebral fixation with a pin or pedicle screw and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), dorsal vertebral fixation with a pedicle screw and rod, and fixation with a locking plate. 2 , 6 – 10 , 14 , 15 , 20 – 23 A previous autopsy study

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

ovariohysterectomy and ovariectomy performed by veterinary students, hemorrhage from an ovarian pedicle occurred in 4% to 9% of dogs. In 1 study, 8 intraoperative hemorrhage was observed in 69 of 87 (79%) large-breed dogs (> 22.7 kg [50 lb]), most commonly resulting

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association