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Introduction Effusion is one of the most common clinical signs identified in horses with joint disease such as osteoarthritis, osteochondrosis dissecans, 1 soft tissue injuries, 2 and synovial sepsis. 3 The use of palpation to detect

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

joint following trauma or intra-articular injection. 5,12 This may be associated with periarticular edema that makes it difficult to assess joint effusion with palpation. The dorsal recess of the DIP joint attaches to the extensor process of the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, respectively, during PPR; the required number of FMSs were performed during the same PPR. The FMS technique consists of compression of the pregnant uterine horn and detection of the chorioallantoic membrane as it slips between the fingers of the palpator. 23

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

concentrations of early conception factor 9,10 and pregnancy-specific proteins 11–13 and expression of interferon-τ–stimulated genes. 14,15 Nevertheless, PPR remains the method of choice for pregnancy diagnosis in cattle for most veterinarians. Palpation per

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Transrectal palpation for early pregnancy diagnosis in cattle continues to be the most frequent procedure performed by bovine veterinarians around the world. 1–8 A 2018 report 8 of the National Animal Health Monitoring System from the US

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

status for these cows, whereas PPR did not. The reasons for this are likely to be attributable to induced or natural pregnancy loss in early gestation for which positive signs of pregnancy may persist for several days. 23,24 Alternatively, the palpator

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A prospective observational study was performed to determine whether palpation per rectum of cows in the first 6 weeks of gestation to diagnose pregnancy contributed to fetal attrition. Pregnancy diagnoses were made by private practitioners as part of their routine herd-health service on 9 dairies in the San Joaquin Valley of California. To determine whether there was an association between abortion and fetal age at time of palpation, the probability of abortion was tested as a function of fetal age at palpation, controlling for possible modifying and confounding effects of herd, age at conception, gravidity, parity, and number of days-in-lactation at conception. Results of logistic regression analyses for 19,411 pregnancies followed for up to 90 days after palpation indicated that, during the 28- to 42-day period, palpation of fetuses earlier in the period was associated with a significantly (P < 0.0001) low probability of abortion, compared with that for palpation later in the period. An association between abortion and palpation of fetuses > 42 days of age was not found. Results were suggestive that, given conditions and techniques typical of private practice, fetal death may not be a usual manifestation of early palpation of cows to diagnose pregnancy, rather, that there may be a slight increase in risk of fetal death as the fetal age at palpation increases from 28 to 42 days.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The anatomy of each feature and structure of the laryngeal and adjacent regions, as perceived by palpation, is described for clinically normal standing horses. Visible skin contours produced by some of the superficial structures are also described. Concurrent dissection was performed on fresh cadavers to confirm initial findings. The procedure of systematic palpation in relation to clinical diagnosis and surgical procedure is discussed.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

To determine whether rectal palpation, using common obstetrical sleeves, serves as a mode of transmission of bovine leukemia virus in dairy cattle, field studies were conducted at 2 dairies. At a commercial dairy, significant difference was not observed in rate of seroconversion in heifers and cows in which the same sleeve or new sleeves were used for palpations. At a university dairy, where cattle were used to teach dairy husbandry and veterinary procedures, significantly (P < 0.02) greater rate of seroconversion was observed in heifers and cows palpated with unwashed common sleeves than that observed in heifers and cows palpated with sleeves washed between use. Although rectal transmission of bovine leukemia virus under field conditions was documented, it was related to frequency of palpation and age of cattle.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To determine the benefits that were associated with pregnancy testing by use of transrectal palpation during the period 30 to 65 days after unsuccessful insemination of dairy cows.

Design—

Nonconcurrent, cohort study.

Animals—

Cows in 15 dairy herds in the United States and Canada.

Procedure—

Reproductive records of cows (n = 713) that did not calve within 294 days of first-service insemination and that had been evaluated for pregnancy 30 to 65 days after first-service insemination were examined. Records were analyzed to determine the day of parturition or date of culling and to determine if the probability of a cow being culled or the interval to parturition was related to the number of days after insemination that pregnancy testing was performed.

Results—

For cows that calved more than 294 days after first-service insemination, the interval from first-service insemination until parturition was associated significantly with herd, season, and treatment on the day of pregnancy testing with prostaglandin F or one of its analogues. Cows treated with prostaglandin F on the day of pregnancy testing were less likely to be culled than nontreated cows. For cows pregnancy tested 30 to 65 days after insemination, each additional day after day 30 before pregnancy testing was performed resulted in an increase of 1.09 days in the interval until parturition.

Clinical Implications—

Pregnancy testing by means of transrectal palpation as soon as possible after day 30 after insemination can result in shorter calving intervals.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association