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propulsion impulse for any limb ( Figure 1 ). Pain scores and owner assessments —For all 4 VAS scores, the Bayes information criterion indicated that an autoregressive covariance structure was most appropriate. Analysis of the linear mixed models

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

potential formation, and impulse transmission. 1 Previous studies have shown lower postoperative pain scores following use of local blocks over systemic opioids. 2 Many established methods for local ophthalmic blocks exist; one that is commonly performed

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Short Form of the Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale (CMPS-SF) 16 was used to assign pain scores on a scale from 0 (no signs of pain) to 26 (signs of extreme pain, such as screaming, crying, chewing on the painful area, refusing to move, nonresponsive

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

people with chronic musculoskeletal pain have shown greater reductions in pain scores in patients treated with SMs compared to those treated with placebos, 14 – 17 although other studies have shown no difference between the groups. 18 – 20 A controlled

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

hypothesized that orally administered hydrocodone-acetaminophen would provide better postoperative analgesia (as determined by pain score analysis and frequency of rescue analgesic treatment) for dogs undergoing this treatment, compared with that after orally

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

in dogs is complex. 9–20 The MGCMPS is a validated pain scoring system that uses multiple indices associated with orthopedic pain, including the patient's overall appearance, observation of gait, response to pressure on the surgical site, and overall

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

retrobulbar injection as means to provide local analgesia postoperatively to dogs after eye enucleation. The biological hypotheses were that there would be no difference in pain scores recorded before and after surgery in dogs undergoing enucleation following

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

determined to be in moderate to severe pain and was given rescue analgesia (methadone, 0.2 mg/kg, IV). All cats received meloxicam n (0.2 mg/kg, SC), following the last pain score evaluation or if rescue analgesia was dispensed. The anesthetist and the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

) blinded to treatment group assignment. Severity of pain was monitored 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after surgery on the basis of pain scores obtained with a modified University of Melbourne Pain Scale ( Appendix ) and on the basis of results of mechanical

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

obtain a baseline pain score ( Appendix ). Preoperative diagnostic evaluations, including CBC, serum biochemical analysis, and diagnostic imaging (eg, thoracic radiography or abdominal ultrasonography), were performed as indicated by signalment

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association