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80% in patients aged over 2 to 3 years. 7 , 9 – 11 Several reports 12 – 14 using next-generation sequencing to analyze oral microbiomes revealed that the distribution of oral bacteria varies depending on the presence of oral disease and the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

place. Premature loss of the deciduous dentition, either through natural means or iatrogenic removal, results in disruption of the occlusal blood supply and allows ingress of oral bacteria and debris. Disruption of the cementoblast blood supply results

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

predictive of Mycoplasma -specific PCR assay results. We hypothesized that a greater percentage of BALF samples contaminated with oral bacteria would have positive Mycoplasma -specific PCR assay results, signalment would be similar between dogs with

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

hydroxyapatite crystals. 13 , 14 Dental caries form when certain oral bacteria ferment dietary carbohydrates and produce an acidic by-product, reducing the pH of the biofilm around the teeth. 12 , 15 At an acidic pH, the phosphate ions and hydroxyl ions react

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

enzyme’s treatment effect on the average count of oral bacteria. It was observed that the dextranase enzyme reduces the abundance of bacteria in dental plaque. Moreover, the study designed by Juntarachot 26 found that the dextranase enzyme can improve

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. J Clin Microbiol 2004 ; 42 : 3505 – 3512 . 10.1128/JCM.42.8.3505-3512.2004 39. Ishihara K Miura T Kimizuka R , et al. Oral bacteria inhibit Helicobacter pylori growth . FEMS Microbiol Lett 1997 ; 152 : 355 – 361 . 10.1111/j.1574

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

various oral bacteria (eg, P gulae ). Unpublished results of an in vivo study b involving dogs also suggest that feeding this form of vitamin C for 28 days results in a significant decrease in mean dental plaque and calculus scores and improvement in

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

that these could alter scent patterns. Care was taken to ensure animals had not received anything by mouth within an hour prior to collection of the saliva samples. However, inherent variation in oral bacteria and presence of underlying dental disease

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

accompanied by an inflammatory response to periodontal pathogens resulting in endotoxin formation that mediates local release of inflammatory cytokines. The American Veterinary Dental Society 3 cautions pet owners, “Studies have shown that oral bacteria will

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Dolieslager SMJ , Lappin DF , Bennett D , The influence of oral bacteria on tissue levels of Toll-like receptor and cytokine mRNAs in feline chronic gingivostomatitis and oral health . Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2013 ; 151 : 263 – 274 . 10.1016/j

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research