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any studies reporting the incidence and risk factors for colic in horses hospitalized for ocular disease or undergoing ocular surgery. This information would help clinicians educate their clients, identify horses at risk of developing colic, and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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Introduction As many veterinary practitioners have experienced, ocular disease is common in animals. Plus, there are many similarities between the ocular diseases in companion veterinary species and those in humans. Study of naturally

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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I n the companion Currents in One Health by Gilger, 1 JAVMA , December 2022, naturally occurring ocular diseases are reviewed that have clinical similarities in animals and humans, with an emphasis on their one-health perspective. The JAVMA

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

ocular diseases. The oral cavity is a unique environment that harbors numerous bacterial species, including anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. Bacteria play a pivotal role in the onset of periodontal disease by creating biofilms that adhere to and populate

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—

To identify ocular and adnexal diseases to which llamas in North America are susceptible, to determine prevalence of these diseases in llamas, and to compare prevalences of the major ocular diseases of llamas, cattle, and horses.

Design—

Retrospective study.

Animals—

194 llamas, 4,937 cows, and 11,950 horses with ocular disease.

Procedure—

Medical records of all llamas entered into the Veterinary Medical Database between 1980 and 1993 were reviewed. Data on ocular structures affected and types of ocular disease were compiled. Prevalences of uveitis, corneal ulcers, and ocular squamous cell carcinoma in llamas were compared with prevalences in cattle and horses.

Results—

194 of 3,243 (6%) llamas had at least 1 ocular disease. The proportion of llamas that had ocular disease was significantly higher lhan the proportions of cattle or horses. The most frequently affected ocular structure in llamas was the cornea, and ulcerative keratitis was the most common comeal disease. The second most commonly affected structure was the uveal tract. Cataracts were reported in 20 (10%) of the llamas with ocular problems. Eyelid disorders, retinal diseases, glaucoma, and ocular or adnexal neoplasia were reported infrequently in llamas.

Clinical Implications—

Results suggest that corneal disease is common in llamas and is usually secondary to trauma. Uveitis may also be common in llamas, but llamas do not appear to be highly susceptible to glaucoma, ocular neoplasia, or to direct corneal invasion by bacteria such as Moraxefla sp. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:1784–1787)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A total of 147 cats positive for FeLV were retrospectively studied to determine the incidence of ocular disease. Of those cats, 97 had clinical cases of the disease and 50 were artificially infected with the virus. The incidence of ocular disease among FeLV-positive cats with clinical signs of disease was less than 2%, and represented less than 0.1% of the total feline cases for the 5-year period studied. The only ocular findings that could be associated with FeLV were pupillary and motility abnormalities. Retinal hemorrhage and subsequent degeneration found in experimentally infected and naturally infected cats were secondary to profound anemia, which was secondary to FeLV infection. On the basis of the literature and our findings, FeLV is not a major cause of primary or secondary ocular disease in the cat. Anterior uveal disease (iris bombé) was detected in 1 of 147 FeLV-positive cats, and the incidence of secondary infectious disease was zero.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

been reported. 1,13,14,16–19 , a However, no studies have been performed to determine the accuracy of ultrasonography for identification of ocular diseases, to the authors' knowledge. Diagnoses determined via ultrasonography are typically tentative

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To detect and characterize the full range of chlamydial infections in cats with ocular disease by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, cytologic examination, immunohistochemical analysis, and evaluation of clinical information including status for feline herpesvirus-1 (FeHV-1).

Sample Population—DNA extracted from 226 conjunctival samples obtained from cats with clinically diagnosed keratitis or conjunctivitis and 30 conjunctival samples from healthy cats.

Procedure—PCR assays for the 16S rRNA gene specific for the order Chlamydiales and a new Chlamydophila felis (formerly Chlamydia psittaci) species-specific 23S rRNA gene were performed. Seventy-four conjunctival samples were prepared with Romanowsky-type stain, grouped on the basis of inflammatory pattern, and screened for chlamydial inclusions by use of immunohistochemical analysis. Clinical information and FeHV-1 status were recorded.

Results—26 (12%) specimens had positive results for the only known feline chlamydial pathogen, C felis. Surprisingly, an additional 88 (39%) were positive for non-C felis chlamydial DNA. Identification of non- C felis chlamydial DNA by direct sequencing revealed 16S rRNA gene sequences that were 99% homologous to the sequence for Neochlamydia hartmannellae, an amebic endosymbiont. Chlamydial prevalence was significantly higher in cats with ocular disease.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Application of a broad-range detection method resulted in identification of a new agent associated with ocular disease in cats. Finding chlamydia-like agents such as N hartmannellae in coinfections with their obligate amebic host, Hartmannella vermiformis, raises questions about the potential role of these microorganisms in causation or exacerbation of ocular disease in cats. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1421–1428)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
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Summary

Medical records of 17 cats with ocular disease attributable to herpesvirus infection were reviewed. Herpesvirus infection was confirmed by a positive result on an immunofluorescent antibody test or by detection of dendritic corneal ulcers. Cats were 3 months to 23 years old (mean, 4.8 years). Sex or breed predilections were not evident. Vaccination history was available for 13 cats, 9 of which had been adequately vaccinated against feline viral rhinotracheitis, calici, and panleukopenia viruses. Six cats had a history of respiratory tract disease. Twelve cats were tested for FeLV, and 3 had positive results; 7 cats were tested for feline immunodeficiency virus, with 1 positive result. The most common ocular abnormality seen was conjunctivitis (13/17 cats), followed by dendritic corneal ulcers (10/17 cats). Keratitis was detected in 6 of 17 cats, and nondendritic corneal ulcers in 3 of 17 cats. Corneal sequestra were evident on initial examination or developed during the follow-up period in 4 of 17 cats. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca was diagnosed in 2 of 17 cats, and anterior uveitis was evident in 1 of 17 cats. All cats had 2 or more clinical ocular abnormalities associated with herpesvirus infection. Treatment with topically applied antiviral medications was instituted in 14 cats, including idoxuridine in 7, vidarabine in 4, and trifluridine in 3. Antibiotics were used topically in 10 cats, and atropine was used in 3 cats. Topical administration of corticosteroids was used in 2 cats. Recombinant human α-interferon was given orally to 3 cats in conjunction with topical administration of antiviral agents. In addition to medical treatment, 4 cats were treated surgically. The 17 cats were reexamined 1 to 9 times (mean, 3 reexaminations). Follow-up monitoring (reexamination) was performed between 1 week and 3 years after initial treatment. Ocular disease resolved in 3 of 17 cats, 8 had clinical improvement, and 6 did not have improvement or became worse. A specific antiviral treatment regimen that was clinically superior to other treatments could not be identified.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine within a cat shelter effects of dietary lysine supplementation on nasal and ocular disease and detection of nucleic acids of Chlamydophila felis, feline calicivirus (FCV), and feline herpesvirus (FHV-1).

Animals—261 adult cats.

Procedures—Cats were fed a diet containing 1.7% (basal diet; control cats) or 5.7% (supplemented diet; treated cats) lysine for 4 weeks. Plasma concentrations of lysine and arginine were assessed at the beginning (baseline) and end of the study. Three times a week, cats were assigned a clinical score based on evidence of nasal and ocular disease. Conjunctival and oropharyngeal swab specimens were tested for FHV-1, FCV, and C felis nucleic acids once a week.

Results—Data were collected from 123, 74, 59, and 47 cats during study weeks 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. By study end, plasma lysine concentration in treated cats was greater than that in control cats and had increased from baseline. There was no difference between dietary groups in the proportion of cats developing mild disease. However, more treated cats than control cats developed moderate to severe disease during week 4. During week 2, FHV-1 DNA was detected more commonly in swab specimens from treated versus control cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dietary lysine supplementation in the amount used in our study was not a successful means of controlling infectious upper respiratory disease within a cat shelter. Rather, it led to increases in disease severity and the incidence of detection of FHV-1 DNA in oropharyngeal or conjunctival mucosal swab specimens at certain time points.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research