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weight is needed to cause a positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT) in dogs, highlighting the utility of fecal occult blood testing in identification of GI bleeding. 1 Gastrointestinal blood loss can be a cause of unexplained regenerative anemia in dogs

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

abnormalities on ECG or echocardiography that do not have overt clinical signs. This phase is often referred to as occult disease. The third phase includes dogs with ECG and echocardiographic abnormalities as well as clinical signs such as heart failure

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Detection of fecal occult blood has challenged veterinarians and physicians for decades. Detection methods in mammals have included labeling of erythrocytes with chromium 51 and measuring fecal radioactivity, 1 quantifying the fluorescence of Hb

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

treat cats with occult HCM. Rapamycin, also known as sirolimus, a macrolide and inhibitor of the mechanistic (previously called mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR), shows promise as a novel therapeutic for feline HCM. 5 – 10 mTOR is an atypical

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether ventricular late potentials, detected by means of signal-averaged electrocardiography (SAECG), were associated with sudden death in Doberman Pinschers with occult cardiomyopathy.

Design

Case series.

Animals

39 Doberman Pinschers with occult cardiomyopathy.

Procedure

Cardiomyopathy was diagnosed by means of serial echocardiography and ambulatory electrocardiography; SAECG was performed 1 or more times for each dog.

Results

12 dogs died suddenly; the other 27 died after developing overt clinical signs of congestive heart failure. Results of SAECG were associated with outcome, and dogs in which ventricular late potentials were detected were more likely to die suddenly. However, 5 dogs for which results of SAECG were normal (n = 2) or equivocal (3) also died suddenly.

Clinical Implications

Results suggest that SAECG may be useful in predicting whether Doberman Pinschers with occult cardiomyopathy, confirmed on the basis of results of echocardiography, are at risk of dying suddenly. However, the possibility of sudden death cannot be ruled out simply because results of SAECG are normal. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:235-239)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of 2 commercial test kits for detection of occult blood in canine feces, various volumes of blood were administered to 6 dogs via orogastric tube. Blood volumes tested were chosen on the basis of hemoglobin quantities of 5, 10, 20, 200, 350, and 500 mg of hemoglobin/kg of body weight. Fecal specimens were collected twice daily and analyzed separately by 2 observers for the presence of occult blood by use of modified guaiac and orthotolodine tablet tests, and for melena by visual inspection. Five dogs given blood at the rate of 500 mg of hemoglobin/kg and 1 dog given blood at the rate of 350 mg of hemoglobin/kg developed melena. Results of both occult blood tests were positive in 2 of 6 dogs given blood at the rate of 5 mg of hemoglobin/kg. Five of 6, and 4 of 6 dogs given blood at the rate of 10 mg hemoglobin/kg had positive test results by modified guaiac and orthotolodine methods, respectively. Results of both methods were positive in all dogs given blood at the rate of 20 mg of hemoglobin/kg. There was 86% agreement between the 2 observers’ results for the modified guaiac method, and 78% agreement for the orthotolodine method. There was 77% agreement of results between the 2 test methods. Gastrointestinal transit time decreased with increasing volumes of blood. Occult blood testing was found to be useful for detection of blood in feces at volumes 20 to 50 times less than that required to cause melena.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

To evaluate the effect of diet on results obtained by use of 2 commercial test kits for detection of occult blood in feces, 5 dogs were fed 7 diets in randomized sequence. Dry and canned diets with various principal ingredients were evaluated. Each diet was offered twice over a 24-hour period, followed by a 36-hour nonfeeding period. Fecal specimens were collected twice daily, and tests for occult blood were performed within 12 hours. The dietary origin of fecal specimens was confirmed by use of colored markers fed with each diet, and was correlated with estimates of gastrointestinal tract transit time. A modified guaiac paper test and an o-tolidine tablet test were performed on each specimen.

Of 59 specimens, 4 were positive for occult blood, using the o-tolidine tablet test. Three positive results were associated with a mutton-based canned diet, and 1 positive result was associated with a canned beef-based diet. Of 59 specimens, 11 were positive for occult blood, using the modified guaiac paper test. Four positive results were associated with the mutton diet, and 3 positive results were associated with the beef diet. Of the remaining 5 diets, 4 caused 1 positive reaction.

Results were inconsistent with the null hypothesis that the distribution of positive occult blood test results is not affected by diet (P < 0.025), and indicate that diet can affect the specificity of peroxidase-based tests for detection of occult blood in canine feces. Diet modification prior to testing is recommended.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

In “Evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of four laboratory tests for detection of occult blood in cockatiel ( Nymphicus hollandicus ) excrement” (AJVR, Vol 67, pp 1326–1332), the legend for Figure 2 should read, “Mean and 95% CI for in

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine echocardiographic, electrocardiographic, and histologic abnormalities in Doberman Pinschers with occult cardiomyopathy that died suddenly and to compare findings with those of Doberman Pinschers with cardiomyopathy that died of congestive heart failure.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

14 Doberman Pinschers with occult cardiomyopathy that died suddenly (group 1) and 40 Doberman Pinschers with cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure (group 2).

Procedure

Serial echocardiography and continuous, ambulatory electrocardiographic (Holter) monitoring were performed. Hearts of dogs that died suddenly were examined histologically.

Results

Group-2 dogs died at a significantly older age than did group-1 dogs. All dogs had echocardiographic abnormalities, but changes were more severe in group-2 than in group-1 dogs. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias were documented in all dogs. Group-1 dogs were more likely to have episodes of sustained ventricular tachycardia than were group-2 dogs. Multifocal interstitial fibrosis and replacement of muscle fibers with collagen and fat were consistently observed in hearts from dogs that died suddenly. Ten group-1 dogs had received antiarrhythmic treatment prior to death.

Clinical Implications

Occult cardiomyopathy can be identified by means of echocardiography and Holter monitoring in Doberman Pinschers. Doberman Pinschers with cardiomyopathy that had episodes of sustained (> 30 seconds) ventricular tachycardia were at risk of dying suddenly. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:505–511)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

  • Colonic adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor of glandular crypt epithelium in middle-aged and older horses; the tumor may metastasize to the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and lungs, but it has not been reported to metastasize to bone and muscle.

  • Clinical signs of abdominal neoplasia may be vague and nonspecific; extensive diagnostic testing of these animals often is required.

  • Radionucleotide imaging, using technetium Tc 99m hydroxymethylene diphosphate in conjunction with technetium Tc 99m hexamethylpropylenamine oxime, can be a sensitive noninvasive tool to identify the nature of a disseminated disease when radiography is not sensitive enough to detect early osteoblastic changes that precede morphologic changes.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association