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Acidosis is common in newborn calves as a result of impaired uteroplacental gas exchange or asphyxia. Acidosis can be a life-threatening condition, depending on the severity and duration. Venous blood pH < 7.2 (measured in samples obtained during

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Serum α1-acid glycoprotein (α1-ag) in bovine fetuses and newborn calves was characterized. Serum α1-ag concentration increased during fetal development and neonatal stages. Mean ± sd serum α1-ag concentration reached a peak of 1,368 ± 207 μg/ml immediately after birth, but thereafter gradually decreased to 249 ± 100 μg/ml, similar to the normal adult bovine range.

By use of isoelectric focusing of thin-layer gels, we detected 7 microheterogeneity bands ranging from pI 3.2 to 3.8 in adult bovine serum. Twelve bands ranging from pI 2.6 to 3.8 were found in 9-month fetuses and in neonates. The 5 most-acidic bands, which are absent in adult serum, ranged between pI 2.6 and 3.1 and decreased with maturation as band patterns assumed adult characteristics.

By crossed affinity electrophoresis, α1-ag of adult bovine serum was separated into 4 peaks according to its differential affinity to concanavalin A (conA). Seventy-five percent of the α1-ag concentration was represented by peak 3 (P-3) and peak 4 (P-4), which had moderate or strong binding to conA. In contrast, fetal sera contained only peak 1 (P-1), which did not have conA-binding affinity. In neonatal sera, 4 peaks were recognized, of which P-1 comprised 70% of the total α1-ag. Thereafter, with aging, percentage of P-3 and P-4 increased as band composition approached the normally expected adult pattern.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A study was conducted to investigate whether aspiration of amniotic fluid is associated with a deleterious effect on absorption of colostral immunoglobulins or on blood gas and acid-base values of healthy newborn calves. Fourteen calves purchased from commercial sources were transported to a research facility immediately after birth and fed colostrum with known concentrations of immunoglobulins. Blood samples for gas analyses were collected within 5 hours of birth, 24 hours later, and prior to euthanasia. Between 3 and 5 days of age, calves were euthanatized by an overdose of barbiturates. Eleven calves had evidence of bronchoaspiration of amniotic fluid, as determined by presence of meconium, squamous epithelium, or keratin in histologic sections of fixed lung or by cytologic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Blood gas tensions and pH were within reference ranges in 11 of 14 calves. Aspiration of amniotic fluid could not be linked to any specific changes in blood gas tensions, add-base status, or absorption of colostral immunoglobulins. Presence of keratin and meconium in the lungs often was accompanied by mild exudative alveolitis and focal atelectasis. It was concluded that aspiration of small amounts of amniotic fluid with or without meconium is common in calves and is not associated with hypoxemia, respiratory acidosis, or failure of passive transfer.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To detect localization of α1-acid glycoprotein (α1,-AG) antigens in the liver tissue of cattle by use of immunoperoxidase technique.

Sample Population

Liver specimens from 6 bovine fetuses, 2 healthy bovine neonates, 2 healthy adult cattle, 3 cattle with experimentally induced hepatic abscesses, and 2 cattle with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL).

Procedure

3 cattle (with hepatic abscesses) were inoculated with a suspension of Fusobacterium necrophorum in the ruminal vein. Serum α1-AG concentration was determined by use of the single radial immunodiffusion method. Livers from fetuses, newborn calves, and adult or sick cattle were fixed in buffered 10% formalin, dehydrated in alcohol, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and stained by use of the avidin-biotin complex/immunoperoxidase technique.

Results

Sites of localization of the α1-AG antigen positive reaction (AGPR) in the liver obtained from bovine fetuses, neonates, or sick cattle were different. In fetal and newborn calves, the AGPR was detected in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Intensity of the reaction varied in direct proportion to α1-AG serum concentration. In adult cattle, the AGPR was particularly intense in hepatocytes adjacent to abscesses or EBL-induced tumors.

Conclusions

The pattern of distribution of cells with AGPR in the liver varied, depending on severity of inflammation. In the cattle with EBL, whether the AGPR was attributable to inflammation could not be clarified, although suppression of immunologic response to tumors may have been a cause of the observed reaction. This association suggests that the glycoprotein may be synthesized, mainly in hepatocytes. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:725–728)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

) vaccines. Newborn calves received colostrum and were transported to research facility when 2 to 5 days old. One week later calves were vaccinated IN, receiving either a single MLV vaccine or both MLV vaccines delivered in separate nostrils. The placebo

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The effects of alkalinizing agents, administered prior to feeding colostrum, on blood-gas and acid-base values and on absorption of IgGl were determined in 40 newborn Holstein calves. Two treatments, sodium bicarbonate (3 mEq/kg of body weight, IV) and doxapram HCl (2 mg/kg, IV), were evaluated, using a randomized complete-block experimental design. These treatments resulted in significant (P< 0.01) alteration of blood-gas and acid-base values, generally in the direction of normal values for adult cattle. Significant least squares mean effects were detected for sodium bicarbonate treatment on blood pH ( + 0.04 units, P < 0.01), Pco2( + 4.1 mm of Hg, P <0.01), and HCO3 concentration ( + 4.4 mEq/L, P < 0.01). Significant least squares mean effects were detected for doxapram HC1 treatment on blood pH ( + 0.06 pH units, P <0.01) and Pco2(–5.2 mm of Hg, P <0.01). Absorption of colostral IgGl was not affected by the treatments given or by the altered blood-gas and/or acid-base status.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of colostral cells on the ability of neonatal leukocytes to respond in a mixed leukocyte response (MLR) as a means of evaluating specific immune responsiveness.

Animals—10 Holstein calves, their respective dams, and 10 unrelated adult Holstein cows.

Procedure—Soon after birth, their calves were fed maternal whole colostrum or colostrum after cells were removed by centrifugation. Responses for leukocytes obtained from calves during the first 5 weeks after birth, their dams, and unrelated cows were measured by use of 1-way MLR as an indicator of immune development. An internal control treatment, proliferation of lymphocytes stimulated with Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB), was also measured.

Results—Transfer of colostral leukocytes had a significant effect on the MLR and SEB-induced response in calves. Calves receiving whole colostrum had enhanced responses to maternal and unrelated leukocytes 24 hours after ingestion of colostrum. These responses decreased quickly, indicating direct modulation of the neonatal immune response. Calves receiving whole colostrum effectively stimulated the MLR by 24 hours after ingestion of colostrum. In contrast, calves receiving acellular colostrum did not effectively stimulate the MLR until 2 to 3 weeks after birth.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ingestion of maternal colostral leukocytes immediately after birth stimulates development of the neonatal immune system. These maternal leukocytes enhance development of antigen-presenting capacity as indicated by their ability to stimulate the MLR and SEB response. The influence of ingested maternal cells on neonatal immunity was also indicated by a reduction in reactivity of neonatal cells to maternal alloantigens. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1854–1860)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Newborn calves are at high risk for gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infection, and inadequate transfer of maternal antibodies is an important factor that contributes to risk of disease in these calves. 1,2 There is a need to enhance immune

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Femoral fractures are common in newborn calves and are typically located either in the femoral neck, proximal femoral physis, or femoral shaft. 1,2 The interface of metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone at the point at which cortical bone changes from

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

manner, compared with dairy herds in which calving generally occurs continuously throughout the year. Also, use of this strategy requires that, in addition to newborn calves, all cattle that did not calve (bulls, weaned heifers, and cows that did not

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association