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. 4 Nebulization is reported for the delivery of hydrophilic antimicrobials, such as gentamicin. 5 Gentamicin is a broad-spectrum aminoglycoside that is effective against the majority of pathogenic aerobic bacteria (particularly against gram

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

infection is considered to occur via inhalation, 1 , 5 , 6 we hypothesized that immunizing foals via nebulization could be a more effective method than intramuscular (IM) immunization by inducing local immune responses. Here, we report in silico design of 4

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether conscious, unsedated cats will inhale a nebulized material administered via a facemask and whether this material will reach the lower airways.

Animals—20 healthy adult cats.

Procedure—Technetium Tc 99m-diaminetriaminopentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) was nebulized into a spacer and administered to the cats via a closely fitting facemask. By use of a gamma camera, images were then immediately obtained to determine the distribution of 99mTc-DTPA within the lower airways.

Results—Images obtained by use of the gamma camera revealed that all 20 cats had inhaled 99mTc-DTPA from the facemask. In each cat, deposition of the radiopharmaceutical agent was evident throughout the lung fields.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Awake cats that were not used to the application of a facemask did inhale substances from such a device. Aerosolization of medications may be a feasible route of administration for cats with lower airway disease. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:806–809)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

necessary to exacerbate the disease in susceptible individuals. This is typically accomplished by placing RAO-susceptible horses in an enclosed stall and exposing them to moldy hay or by challenging horses with a nebulized suspension of hay dust, LPS, and

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

nebulization. Conventional 6-mL nebulizer cups c were used to inoculate ponies. Nebulization was performed by use of an air compressor d with a gas flow of 9 L/min, resulting in consistent nebulization of breathable particles (diameter, approx 5 μm). Each

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

B bronchiseptica , g feline herpesvirus-1, h feline calicivirus, h canine parvovirus, i and canine distemper virusi were aerosolized during separate trials into the simulated HVAC system by nebulization, collected from the air with impingers, and

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To examine effect of pre-exercise administration of furosemide (FUR) on mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) during work and RBC concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) collected 40 minutes after exercise.

Animals

10 adult Thoroughbreds.

Procedure

A modified 10 × 10 crossover design comprising 10 horses during 10 weeks was used. Each horse received each of 5 treatments twice. Treatment structure included a control plus a 2 × 2 factorial and consisted of the following: A, control; B, FUR, 250 mg, IV, 30 minutes before exercise; C, FUR, 250 mg, IV, 240 minutes before exercise; D, FUR, 250 mg, nebulized, 30 minutes before exercise; and E, FUR, 250 mg, nebulized, 240 minutes before exercise. Mean PAP data were collected, and each horse, after a 500-m warm-up, was galloped at maximal speed for 1,600 m. BALF RBC concentration was determined by hemocytometer.

Results

Interaction between treatment method and time of administration was significant (P = 0.04). Treatment B resulted in significantly (P = 0.01) lower BALF RBC concentration than did treatment C. Only BALF RBC count after treatment B was significantly lower than the control value. Horses that received FUR IV had significantly lower peak mean PAP than did those that received the drug by nebulization, regardless of administration time. Only treatment B resulted in peak mean PAP that was significantly lower than that of control. Exercise time was not influenced by treatment.

Conclusions

FUR, administered IV 30 minutes before exercise, significantly reduced peak mean PAP and BALF RBC concentration. (Am J Vet Res 1999; 60:22–28)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To describe the spectrum of nonspecific airway reactivity in a group of clinically normal foals.

Animals

12 clinically normal mixed-breed foals, 48 to 92 days old, without history of clinical lung disease.

Procedure

Nonspecific airway reactivity was determined by measuring the extent of changes in dynamic compliance during nebulization of incrementally increasing concentrations of histamine aerosol. Degree of airway reactivity was expressed as the dose of histamine that evoked a decrease in dynamic compliance (Cdyn) to 65% of the after saline nebulization value (PC65Cdyn) or increase in pulmonary resistance (RL) to 135% of baseline (PC135RL).

Results

In all foals, it was possible to induce a decrease in Cdyn in dose-dependent manner to ≤ 65% of baseline. Response of foals in terms of RL was more erratic, and, in 1 foal, RL decreased after histamine exposure. Mean ± SD PC65Cdyn was 5.43 ± 1.74 (range, 0.77 to 19.56) mg/ml, and mean PC135RL was 3.34 ± 1.52 (range, −0.749 to 17.35) mg/ml. Body weight was not correlated to baseline Cdyn, RL, PC65Cdyn, or PC135RL.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Clinically normal foals had a wide range of airway reactivity, which may contribute to variation in clinical responses of foals to otherwise similar stimuli, such as infection, inflammation, and challenge exposure with environmental irritants. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:965-968)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of controlled exposure to inhaled lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the pulmonary inflammatory response of anesthetized pigs.

Animals—Forty-seven 8- to 12-week-old domestic pigs.

Procedure—Pigs were anesthetized with pentobarbital, instrumented for measurement of cardiopulmonary function, and randomly assigned to receive saline (0.9% NaCl) solution or 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 µg of LPS/kg/h for 2 or 6 hours via nebulization through the endotracheal tube. Cardiopulmonary variables were measured, ex vivo neutrophil superoxide production determined, and postmortem assessment for pulmonary neutrophil influx and modulation of adhesion molecule (E-selectin) expression was done.

Results—Mild changes in cardiopulmonary function were observed in response to inhaled LPS in the 2- and 6-hour groups. In pigs inhaling LPS (0.5 or 1.0 µg/kg/h) for 6 hours, there was significant pulmonary neutrophil influx observed postmortem. An increase in expression of E-selectin on pulmonary endothelial cells after 6 hours of LPS inhalation (0.5 µg/kg/h) was also observed. In contrast, there was no significant influx of neutrophils or expression of E-selectin in lungs from pigs inhaling LPS for 2 hours.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Inhalation of LPS resulted in localized pulmonary inflammation characterized by neutrophil influx and increased expression of the endothelial cell adhesion molecule, E-selectin. It may be possible to relate our experimental findings to the clinical consequences of airborne LPS exposure in swine confinement facilities. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1302–1308)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To quantify and compare intracellular magnesium concentrations (Mgi) in clinically normal dogs (control dogs) and dogs that have gastric dilatation- volvulus (GDV dogs) and to determine whether there is a difference in Mgi and serum magnesium concentrations (Mgs) between GDV dogs with and without cardiac arrhythmias.

Animals—41 control dogs and 21 GDV dogs.

Procedure—Rectus abdominis muscle specimens were obtained from control and GDV dogs for determination of Mgi. Blood samples were obtained from GDV dogs for determination of Mgs, and dogs were monitored for 48 hours for cardiac arrhythmias. Muscle specimens were frozen at –40 C, oven dried at 95 C, and digested with concentrated nitric acid. Multielemental analyses were performed by simultaneous/ sequential inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy with fixed-cross flow nebulization. The Mgi was standardized to sulfur content to correct for the amount of fat and fascia in the muscle specimen. Mean (± SEM) values were recorded in parts per million (ppm).

Results—There were no significant differences in Mgi between control (627 ± 11.1 ppm) and GDV (597 ± 20.5 ppm) dogs, in Mgi between GDV dogs with (590 ± 34 ppm) and without (584 ± 29 ppm) cardiac arrhythmias, and in Mgs between GDV dogs with (1.77 ± 0.26 ppm) and without (1.51 ± 0.09 ppm) cardiac arrhythmias. There was no correlation between Mgs and Mgi ( R2 =0.0001).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that Mg depletion is not pathophysiologically important in dogs with GDV and does not play a role in the cardiac arrhythmias detected in these patients. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1415–1417)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research