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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

In the context of a study of Equine Odontoclastic Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis (EOTRH), elderly Icelandic horses were examined in their originating country. The subject of this survey was the impact of dental treatment and keeping and feeding management on the health of the rostral oral cavity.

ANIMALS

A total of 170 horses (aged ≥ 15) located in different areas of Northwest, West, and South Iceland.

METHODS

The horse owners completed a questionnaire about keeping, feeding, and preventative dental care. The horses were clinically examined with particular attention to gingival and dental disorders of the rostral mouth, such as gingivitis, fistula, gingiva retraction, enlargement of the roots and dental calculus as well as integrity of incisors, bite angle, and tooth mobility.

RESULTS

Most of the horses were kept on pasture all year with little supplementary feeding. The frequency of dental treatment in Iceland was low. Only a few horses were affected by tooth loss, gingivitis, gingival recession, and incisor calculus. Calculus occurred more frequently and more severely in canines than in incisors. The findings did not depend on the location of the horse.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Assuming that the remarkable health of the rostral oral cavity in elderly Icelandic horses was not caused by preventive dental care, it is likely that it was due to living conditions in Iceland. Continuity, intensity of chewing, and nativeness of forage might promote the health of incisors and tissue surrounding the tooth even in elderly horses.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

high bPVL and those with undetectable to low bPVL. Discussion In this study, we found a correlation between the total WBC count and the BLV bPVL in dairy cattle under natural conditions. This finding suggests that the WBC count could be a

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether topical application of a 10% fipronil solution would control signs of flea allergic dermatitis in cats housed under natural conditions.

Design—Multicenter open clinical trial.

Animals—42 client-owned cats with flea allergic dermatitis.

Procedures—Study cats along with all other cats and dogs living in the same houses were treated with 10% fipronil solution topically on days 0, 30, and 60. Flea counts and clinical assessments were performed on study cats on days 0, 14, 30, 60, and 90.

Results—Percentage reductions in geometric mean flea counts on days 14, 30, 60, and 90, compared with day-0 geometric mean count, were 75, 73, 85, and 94%, respectively. Pruritus score was significantly improved at each examination after day 0, and pruritus was reduced or eliminated in 31 of 40 (78%) cats at the final examination. Similarly, scores for severity of miliary dermatitis and alopecia were significantly improved at each examination, except for alopecia score on day 14. Overall treatment efficacy, assessed on day 90, was excellent for 28 (70%) cats, good for 6 (15%), moderate for 3 (7.5%), and poor for 3 (7.5%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that monthly topical application of fipronil is effective for treatment of flea allergic dermatitis in cats housed under natural conditions. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:254–257)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Genetic recombination between field strains and vaccine strains of pseudorabies virus (prv) has been suggested as a scenario that might arise from use of deletion-mutant modified-live vaccine strains, particularly those strains attenuated by deletions within the thymidine kinase (tk -) gene locus. To address this hypothesis experimentally, it is necessary to screen large numbers of prv isolates for their tk genotype. Techniques to detect the native tk genotype are routinely used in molecular virology laboratories, but are time-consuming. We adapted the polymerase chain reaction to define the genotypic status of prv isolates with regard to the presence or absence of deletions in the tk gene locus. Used in tandem with the existing glycoprotein-specific elisa that discriminate between prv-vaccinated and field strain-infected swine populations, the described technique may help to clarify whether vaccine-derived recombinants are generated under natural conditions and after normal vaccine usage.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure concentrations and activities of major digestive enzymes in healthy equine pancreatic tissue.

Animals—7 adult horses with normal pancreatic tissues.

Procedures—Small pieces of pancreatic tissue were collected immediately after euthanasia, immersed in liquid nitrogen, and maintained at −80°C until analyzed. Concentrations and activities of amylase, lipase, chymotrypsin, trypsin, and elastase were determined by use of a microtiter technique. Relative pancreatic protein concentrations were determined by use of bovine serum albumin as the standard. Pancreatic DNA was extracted and con-centrations determined by use of the diphenylamine method with calf thymus DNA as the standard.

Results—The pancreatic cellular concentration of each enzyme, expressed as units per milligram of DNA, was consistent among horses. Cellular concentration of lipase (1,090.8 ± 285.3 U/mg of DNA) was highest, followed by amylase (59.5 ± 9.8 U/mg of DNA). Elastase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin were detected in small concentrations (1.9 ± 0.6, 3.5 ± 1.5, and 9.6 ± 2.9 U/mg of DNA, respectively). Similar results were obtained for specific activities of the enzymes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results were unexpected because, under natural conditions, the predominant energy source for horses is carbohydrate. These results may indicate, in part, the reason horses seem to tolerate large amounts of fat added to their diet.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

An ion chromatographic method was used to simultaneously determine nitrate and nitrite ions in biological samples. Ultrafiltration was used to produce a proteinfree filtrate. Chloride interferences were eliminated by precipitation as the silver salt. Detection limits and average recoveries were 0.5 mg/L and 102% for nitrate and 0.2 mg/L and 78% for nitrite, respectively. Nitrate concentration was 2.1 ± 1.8 mg/L and 4.9 ± 0.8 mg/L in serum and ocular fluid of healthy cattle, respectively; nitrite was not detected.

A severe case of nitrate poisoning in cattle was described and used to study the concentrations of nitrate and nitrite in samples obtained under natural conditions. Nitrate concentration of acutely poisoned cattle was 35% lower in ocular fluid at 158.1 ± 51.4 mg/L, than in serum at 256.3 ± 113.4 mg/L. Nitrite was not detected, because of the long processing time (> 3 hours) required for samples obtained in the field. A gradual decrease in ocular fluid nitrate of 29.4% at 24 hours, 25.9% at 36 hours, 51.6% at 48 hours, and 73.2% at 60 hours was observed; however, concentrations remained diagnostically significant (73.2 mg/L) 60 hours after death. Twenty-four hours after poisoning, the serum nitrate concentration of severely ill (52.7 ± 51.9 mg/L) and moderately affected (12.4 ± 5.7 mg/L) cattle that survived was indicative of the severity of clinical signs previously observed. Nitrate in serum and ocular fluid was stable in samples stored for 24 hours at 23 C, 1 week at 4 C, and 1 month at −20 C.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

: impact of anamnestic factors on etiology . J Am Vet Med Assoc . 2023 ; 261 ( suppl 2 ): S102 – S107 . doi: 10.2460/javma.23.05.0301 13. Hain AM , Þórisdóttir SL , Tretow M , Bienert-Zeit A . Potential impact of natural conditions on the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

capable of causing disease and death in loons under natural conditions. In loons with necrotizing hepatitis and splenitis, WNV infection should be considered as a differential diagnosis. Acknowledgments The author thanks John Buchweitz from the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Diagn 2013 ; 49 : 33 – 37 . 7. Portier J , Jouet D , Vallee I , et al. Detection of Planorbis planorbis and Anisus vortex as first intermediate hosts of Alaria alata (Goeze 1792) in natural conditions in France: molecular evidence

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

those found under natural conditions, in which internal abscesses were mainly localized in the renal lymph node, without lung lesions. 8 Signs of acute disease were observed in all the inoculated alpacas without substantial differences between groups A

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research