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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the efficacy, complications, and outcome of Dumon silicone stent placement for dogs with grade IV tracheal collapse.

ANIMALS

12 client-owned dogs.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION

Each dog was diagnosed with grade IV TC unresponsive to medical therapy and had severe obstructive respiratory failure.

RESULTS

12 dogs were included in the study. By the end of the study, 5 of 12 (41.7%) remained alive, while 7 of 12 (58.3%) dogs died. Survival times after stent placement ranged from 97 to 1,310 days (mean, 822.43 days; median, 810 days). Three of the 12 (25%) dogs died spontaneously, while 4 of 12 (33.3%) were euthanized. The cause of death was determined for 6 of 7 (85.7%) dogs and was TC related for 3 of 7 (50%). Causes of death related to TC were progressive airway collapse (2/3 [66.6%]) and incoercible cough (1/3 [33.4%]). Complications occurred in 9 of 12 (75%) cases and included granulation tissue growth (3/12 [25%]), incoercible cough (2/12 [16.7%]), stent migration (1/12 [8.3%]), and stent deformation (1/12 [8.3%]). Reduction of obstructive dyspnea and episodes of asphyxiation was achieved after Dumon silicone stent placement.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The placement of an intraluminal Dumon silicone stent was a successful salvage treatment for TC in dogs that did not respond to medical management. Disease progression is inevitable, but substantial improvement of respiratory function may be achieved for months to years.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

,13 Hemorrhage after biopsy is 1 disadvantage of any minimally invasive procedures. 9,11,13 One of the benefits of endoscopic-assisted biopsy over image-based biopsy is the recognition of substantial hemorrhage that occurs at the time of biopsy and direct visual

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

laser resection to remove this tracheal mass reinforces the importance of refining noninvasive mass removal techniques and continuing to investigate and expand the application of minimally invasive procedures in veterinary medicine. Further experience

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

higher doses to induce sedation and recumbency in dogs, such as would be required for minimally invasive procedures or diagnostic imaging. There is also limited information on the pharmacokinetics of detomidine in dogs, 11 and information regarding the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

of the recurrence rate. In conclusion, results of the present study suggested that PLDA was a relatively safe, minimally invasive procedure that appeared to decrease the rate of recurrence of disk herniation in dogs that underwent the procedure

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

duration of sedation, stable cardiorespiratory parameters, and clinically acceptable plasma lactate concentrations support the use of alfaxalone sedation as an alternative to conscious manual restraint in healthy budgerigars for brief, minimally invasive

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare efficacy, required resources, and perioperative complications between laser lithotripsy and cystotomy for urolith (ie, urocystoliths and urethroliths) removal in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—66 dogs with urolithiasis treated by laser lithotripsy (case dogs) and 66 dogs with urolithiasis treated by cystotomy (control dogs).

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed. Complete urolith removal rate, resources (ie, duration of hospitalization, procedure time, anesthesia time, procedure cost, and anesthesia cost), and complications (ie, hypotension, hypothermia, incomplete urolith removal, and requirement of an ancillary procedure) were compared between cystotomy group dogs and lithotripsy group dogs.

Results—Duration of hospitalization was significantly shorter for lithotripsy group dogs, compared with cystotomy group dogs. Procedure time was significantly shorter for cystotomy group dogs, compared with lithotripsy group dogs. Cost of anesthesia was significantly less for cystotomy group dogs, compared with lithotripsy group dogs. No significant differences were found between cystotomy group dogs and lithotripsy group dogs with regard to urolith removal rate, procedure cost, anesthesia time, or any of the evaluated complications.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Laser lithotripsy is a minimally invasive procedure that has been shown to be safe and effective in the removal of urocystoliths and urethroliths in dogs. No significant differences were found in the required resources or complications associated with laser lithotripsy, compared with cystotomy, for removal of uroliths from the lower portions of the urinary tract of dogs. Laser lithotripsy is a suitable, minimally invasive alternative to surgical removal of urethroliths and urocystoliths in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe outcomes for dogs that underwent balloon dilation for palliative treatment of urethral obstruction caused by urothelial carcinoma.

ANIMALS

12 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were searched to identify dogs with urothelial (bladder, urethra, or prostate) carcinoma that underwent balloon dilation for treatment of urethral obstruction between April 2010 and December 2015. Information regarding history, signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic imaging findings, balloon dilation technique, clinical outcomes, complications, and additional treatments was obtained by review of medical records.

RESULTS

Improvement in clinical signs of urethral obstruction was observed after the initial dilation procedure for 9 of 12 dogs. Urethral obstruction was known to recur in 5 dogs 48 to 296 days after the initial procedure. Three of these dogs underwent a second dilation procedure, with clinical improvement in all 3 dogs for 41 to 70 days. One of 2 dogs that had a third procedure after the second reobstruction had clinical improvement in urinary tract signs until subsequent death from metastatic disease 22 days later. Complications included hematuria, urinary incontinence, and dysuria; these resolved within a few days after treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Urethral balloon dilation was a minimally invasive procedure that provided relief of urethral obstruction from urothelial carcinoma in most dogs of the study population. Prospective studies are needed to identify optimal techniques for balloon dilation in dogs with neoplastic urethral obstructions and to identify patients that are likely to benefit most from the treatment.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 5-year-old castrated male Nigerian Dwarf goat with recurrent urethral obstruction after perineal urethrostomy.

Clinical Findings—The wether goat was referred for evaluation of a perineal urethrostomy site; perineal urethrostomy had been performed 1.5 years earlier. The site was patent, but a moderate stricture was found just cranial to the perineal urethrostomy site. The goat had obstructed urine flow at the stricture site repeatedly in the previous few months.

Treatment and Outcome—Laparoscopically assisted urinary bladder marsupialization was recommended. The procedure was performed with the patient under general anesthesia in dorsal recumbency; food had been withheld for 36 hours prior to anesthesia. Ventral midline and left caudal paramedian portals were made for the laparoscopic camera and instruments. A larger incision in the right caudal paramedian portion of the abdomen was used to create the marsupialization stoma. Laparoscopic observation of anatomic structures within the abdomen was excellent. The goat recovered well from surgery and was discharged the day following surgery. Follow-up examinations were done every few months after surgery, and dermatitis of the abdominal skin secondary to urine scald was the only postoperative complication. At 9 months of follow-up, the goat continued to pass urine through the marsupialization site comfortably.

Clinical Relevance—In the goat of this report, laparoscopic urinary bladder marsupialization was a minimally invasive procedure with minimal signs of postoperative pain. The procedure was simple to perform and should be considered as an alternative to marsupialization via laparotomy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate a laser ablation technique for treatment of thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease in dogs.

Design

Prospective case series.

Animals

33 dogs with signs of recurrent back pain associated with intervertebral disk disease after the initial episode had been managed conservatively for a minimum of 2 weeks.

Procedure

Spinal needles were placed percutaneously through the annulus fibroses to permit delivery of an optical fiber into the nucleus pulposes of thoracolumbar intervertebral disks T10-11 through L3-4. Fluoroscopy was used to guide needle placement. Holmium yttrium aluminum garnet laser energy then was used to ablate the contents of each selected intervertebral disk. Intervals from time of treatment to time of assessment ranged from 3 to 114 weeks.

Results

All dogs recovered without complication. Results of follow-up radiography and histologic evaluation indicated that percutaneous holmium yttrium aluminum garnet laser ablation reduces the volume of nucleus pulposus in treated disks.

Clinical Implications

Used as a clinical treatment and prophylactically, this minimally invasive procedure should prevent further extrusion of partially herniated disks and should reduce the chances of subsequent herniation of disks at other treatment sites. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:1263–1267)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association