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turtles specifically, a single prospective study has investigated one protocol in a related species with good success. In ornate box turtles ( Terrapene ornata ornata ), forelimb IM administration of dexmedetomidine-ketamine-midazolam (0.1, 10, and 1.0 mg

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

risk of iatrogenic hemorrhage secondary to IM administration of drugs. Midazolam alone and midazolam combined with butorphanol administered via the IM or IN routes are commonly used for sedation or premedication in pet bird species. 8,10,11 One

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

agonist-antagonist opioid, is often used in combination with medetomidine or ketamine for its sedative and analgesic properties. 13,14 Its effects can be reversed with naloxone or naltrexone. Midazolam, a water-soluble benzodiazepine tranquilizer, is also

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

described for reptiles. 5,8 Combinations of a benzodiazepine and α 2 -adrenoceptor agonist, such as midazolam or dexmedetomidine, are advantageous because they represent completely reversible protocols, and administration of the antagonists (flumazenil and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

prolonged onset of action have been reported following rectal administration of both diazepam 14 and midazolam. 15 Intranasal administration of benzodiazepines has also been reported in veterinary patients. 16–18 It is generally a more pleasant route of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

on its effects on PD. On the basis of previous human studies, we hypothesized that anesthetic induction with midazolam-etomidate would result in a significant decrease in IOP and PD and that anesthetic induction with midazolam-propofol would have no

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

sedatives is frequently used in birds and allows for rapid administration and reliable drug delivery. 2 Midazolam, a benzodiazepine, is the most frequently used drug for psittacine sedation owing to its sedative, anxiolytic, and amnesic properties. 2

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Benzodiazepines are commonly used during the perioperative period as preanesthetics, adjunct anesthesia induction agents, or both. 1–4 Some anesthetists favor the use of midazolam over other sedatives because of its minimal effects on the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

sole sedation agent. 9 Ketamine administration in combination with medetomidine in rabbits results in loss of the righting reflex for 68 minutes when administered IM and 109 minutes when administered SC. 10 Midazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

anticonvulsant range for humans. 17–19 Midazolam administered IM to dogs is rapidly absorbed with bioavailability > 90%. 20 However, there was low systemic availability when midazolam was administered rectally to a single dog. 20 Buccal absorption of midazolam

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research