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microfracture, ligament splitting, and fasciotomy with neurectomy of the deep branch of the lateral plantar nerve. 19 – 22 There is a body of literature that supports anatomic study of the microvasculature of tendons and ligaments in human medicine

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

proximal, midbody, and distal regions. The abundant intraligamentous microvasculature originated from a periligamentous vascular plexus that surrounded the entire length of SL including its distal branches. The vascular supply to this periligamentous plexus

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

microvascular perfusion may be more sensitive for detecting devitalized tissue. Indeed, microvascular damage is considered the most sensitive indicator of cardiovascular failure in people. 15 The microvasculature comprises microvessels, each with a single

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The vasculature of the jejunum was studied in 6 llamas and 1 alpaca, using a combination of microangiography, standard light microscopy, and vascular cast imaging. The casts were examined by use of scanning electron microscopy and low-power dissecting microscopy. After administration of 40,000 IU of heparin, all animals were euthanatized by administration of an overdose of sodium pentobarbital. Three sections of jejunum and their respective arcuate vessels were isolated from each animal. One section was immediately placed in formalin for later H&E staining. The second and third sections were placed in warm saline solution, and the vasculature was flushed free of all blood by repeated infusions of the solution. Once flushed of all blood, one section was infused with a radio-opaque medium and subsequently evaluated by microangiography, and the remaining section was perfused with a methylmethacrylate polymer for creation of vascular casts.

The arcuate vessels branched into extensive primary and secondary arcades prior to giving rise to the marginal rete. Muscular arteries and small veins left the marginal rete and penetrated the tunica serosa and tunica muscularis to provide nutrients or drain the mesenteric angle, respectively, or entered into the circumferential submucosal network. The primary penetrating vessels in the submucosa formed an extensive submucosal plexus that supplied the tunica serosa, tunica muscularis, and tunica mucosa. The primary penetrating vessels anastomosed with vessels from oral and aboral sections and with their counterparts from the opposite side at the antimesenteric border. Vessels supplied the tunica serosa and tunia muscularis by branching centrifugally from the submucosal plexus supplying the inner circular and outer longitudinal muscle layers parallel to their respective muscle layers. The arterioles supplying the tunica mucosa branched at right angles, penetrated the muscularis mucosa, and gave rise to clusters of arterioles supplying either the villi or the intervening crypts; anastomosis occurred between these 2 systerns toward the base of the villus. The arterioles gradually developed a discontinuous smooth muscle layer as they approached the base of the villus. Each villus was supplied by a single centrally placed metarteriole that spiraled to the tip of the villus, divided, and descended in a fountaining capillary network. The individual capillaries in the cascade coalesced to drain via 2 to 4 venules at the base of the villus. Branches from the venules entered into an anastomosing network in the lamina propria to drain the crypts. Venules drained in the submucosal plexus and continued paralleling the arterial supply toward the mesenteric border and the arcuate veins. The jejunal vasculature of South American camelids contains an extensive set of anastomotic connections at all levels after formation of the arcuate vessels. Within the scope of this examination into the microvasculature of llamas and alpacas, differences were not detected between the individual species.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

T he microcirculation is responsible for many essential physiologic functions. 1 Endothelial cells line the microvasculature and synthesize a luminal surface layer called the endothelial glycocalyx (EGC). 1 The EGC is a gel-like layer

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The blood supply to the proximal sesamoid bone of the equine forelimb was examined in 18 cadaver limbs from adult horses, using x-ray computed tomography and a tissue-clearing (Spalteholz) technique. Results of the study indicated that the proximal sesamoid bones were supplied by multiple branches of the medial and lateral palmar digital arteries, which entered the proximal half of the bones on their non-articular, abaxial surface. After entering the bone, the vessels traverse dorsally, axially, and distally, arborizing into several smaller branches that appear to supply the entire bone. The major branches of these vessels reside in bony canals, the orientation and distribution of which parallel the radiographic lucencies seen in horses with sesamoiditis and correspond to the configuration of apical fracture patterns.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize structural changes in pulmonary vessels of dogs with dirofilariosis.

Animals—8 dogs with dirofilariosis and 2 unaffected control dogs.

Procedure—Pulmonary artery pressure was measured in affected dogs, and dogs then were euthanatized. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine vascular corrosion casts of pulmonary vasculature. Tissue sections of pulmonary vasculature were evaluated by use of histologic examination.

Results—Pulmonary artery pressure was higher in dogs with severely affected pulmonary vessels. In tissue sections, dilatation, as well as lesions in the tunica intima and proliferative lesions resulting in constriction or obstruction, were frequently observed in branches of the pulmonary artery. Numerous dilated bronchial arteries were observed around affected pulmonary arteries. Hyperplastic venous sphincters were observed in small pulmonary veins and venules. In corrosion casts, affected pulmonary lobar arteries had dilatation, pruning, abnormal tapering, constriction, and obstruction. In small arteries and arterioles, surface structures representing aneurisms and edema were seen. Bronchial arteries were well developed and extremely dilated, and they formed numerous anastomoses with pulmonary arteries at all levels, from the pulmonary trunk to peripheral vessels. Capillaries in the lungs were dilated with little structural change. Small pulmonary veins and venules had irregular annular constrictions that were caused by hyperplastic smooth muscle cells of venous sphincters.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Scanning electron microscopy of microvascular casts delineated links between the bronchial and pulmonary circulations in dogs with dirofilariosis. Results of scanning electron microscopy provided a structural explanation for the development of pulmonary circulatory disturbances and pulmonary hypertension in dogs affected by dirofilariosis. (Am J Vet Res 2002:63:1538–1544)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

micro-vasculature of these horses. Materials and Methods Animals Seventeen client-owned horses were included with owner consent. Horses were allocated into 2 groups as follows: colic group (n = 8), in which horses required emergency

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

limits. Perhaps a more effective way to assess microcirculatory perfusion is by direct imaging of the microvasculature. Previously, direct assessment of the microcirculation was limited to experimental use of intravital microscopy, especially in the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To localize substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) and their receptors in the insertion of the distal sesamoidean impar ligament (DSIL), deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT), and dorsal hoof wall of healthy feet of horses.

Sample Population—18 healthy feet from horses.

Procedure—Samples from the dorsal hoof wall and insertion of the DSIL and DDFT of 10 feet were processed for immunocytochemical analysis, using rabbit polyclonal antisera raised against SP and NKA. Tissue sections from 8 feet were incubated with I125-labeled SP to localize tachykinin receptors and their specificity and with control solutions of radioactive SP and excess nonradioactive SP to identify areas of nonspecific binding.

Results—Many nerves immunoreactive for SP and NKA were localized to the region of the insertion of the DSIL and DDFT and the accompanying microvasculature and arteriovenous complexes (AVC) as well as to the microvasculature of the dorsal hoof wall. Specific neurokinin 1 receptors were localized over the microvessels and AVC of the insertion zone and small microvessels of the hoof wall.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These results document that the microvasculature of the equine foot is richly innervated and has specific receptors for tachykinins. Distributions of these tachykinin receptors on the microvasculature suggest that they form an important vasodilatory mechanism for controlling blood flow through the DSIL-DDFT insertion and dorsal hoof wall. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:222–228)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research