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disease. 6 , 8 MicroRNAs (miRNAs) make up the majority of the nucleic acids and play a critical role in intercellular communication, especially between chondrocytes and synoviocytes in the context of the joint. 9 , 10 Thus, EVs are ideal candidates to be

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

earlier than is currently possible. Earlier identification will allow for diagnosis at less advanced disease stages, leading to increased survival times. A class of potential biomarkers includes miRNAs, which are 22- to 26-nucleotide-long RNAs that are

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

variety of miRNAs have been found in body fluids, including blood, CSF, saliva, amniotic fluid, breast milk, and urine, 3–7 and differential expression of specific miRNAs, compared with expression in healthy individuals or control patients with other

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

studies 25 indicate miRNAs can be used as biomarkers of disease in humans and may be useful for determination of prognosis. Such miRNAs are small endogenous noncoding RNAs that may regulate expression of up to 30% of genes via posttranscriptional control

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

changes in function, facilitating treatment decisions. A promising group of biomarker candidates for kidney injury are microRNAs (miRNAs), which are small, noncoding RNAs that affect posttranscriptional regulation via interactions with mRNAs. 12 , 13

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

bilayers and function in cell-to-cell communication by shuttling complex messages. Most extracellular RNAs are encased within membranous vesicles or are tightly associated with proteins to avoid degradation. 8 The miRNA is a small noncoding molecule that

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

recipient cells at the mRNA level. Thus, exosomal shuttle RNA, as functional molecules, may modulate the functionality of recipient cells via delivery of a specific set of microRNA (miRNA), a subset of these RNAs found within exosomes. 3 Furthermore

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

(1) ectosomes, which originate from the cell membrane, or (2) exosomes, which originate from within the cell and contain important cell signaling molecules such as mRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), cytokines, and other proteins. Exosomes, which form

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Authors and

–type natriuretic peptide qRT-PCR Quantitative reverse transcription PCR TGF Transforming growth factor Footnotes a. miRNANeasy plasma kit, Qiagen, Germantown, Md. b. Caenorhabditis elegans miRNA-39, Qiagen, Germantown, Md. c. Illumina, New England

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. 2016 ; 78 : 133 – 139 . doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2016.09.004 21. Liu Y , Sun X , Wu Y , et al . Effects of miRNA-145 on airway smooth muscle cells function . Mol Cell Biochem . 2015 ; 409 ( 1–2 ): 135 – 143 . doi: 10.1007/s11010

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research