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synthesis. The features of ACHES described above support a hypothesis that widespread metabolic perturbations affecting multiple pathways occur in affected dogs. 1 – 3 Metabolomics is a powerful tool that can measure hundreds of metabolites in a biological

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

prevalence in dogs with more advanced CHF. 3 , 5 , 6 Inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of cachexia, but it is a complex, redundant, and multifactorial process. 1 , 7 There has been increased use of metabolomic profiling in both human

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, including celomic ultrasound, coelioscopy, and CT scan. This study 8 also explored a broad spectrum of potential biomarkers by means of a mass spectrometry–targeted global metabolomics approach including more than 600 metabolites. The results of this

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

shown in 2 studies 1 , 7 of overtly healthy dogs to be associated with cardiac enlargement and reduced systolic function. The exact cause has not yet been identified. Interest in the use of untargeted metabolomic profiling to understand and improve

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify chondroprotective factors as potential disease-modifying osteoarthritis treatments using an unbiased, bottom-up proteomics approach.

SAMPLES

Paired equine cartilage explants and synovial membrane were collected postmortem from 4 horses with no history of lameness and grossly normal joints at necropsy.

PROCEDURES

Six groups were established: cartilage, synoviocytes, and cartilage + synoviocytes (coculture), all with or without interleukin (IL)-1β. The catabolic effect of IL-1β was verified by glycosaminoglycan (GAG) released from cartilage into media by 1,9-dimethyl-methylene blue assay and cartilage toluidine blue histochemistry. Conditioned media from cocultures with or with IL-1β were submitted for bottom-up proteomic analysis. Synoviocyte gene expression was evaluated using reverse transcription–quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) for proteins of interest identified in the proteomics scan.

RESULTS

GAG content was retained in cartilage when in cocultures treated with IL-1β. Fourteen proteins of interest were selected from the proteomic analysis. From these 14 proteins, metalloproteinase inhibitor 3 precursor (TIMP3), tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 11B (TNFRSF11B), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2), and alpha-2 macroglobulin (A2M) were selected for synoviocyte gene expression analysis by RT-qPCR. Gene expression of TIMP3 (P = .02) and TNFRSF11B (P = .04) were significantly increased in synoviocytes from cocultures treated with IL-1β compared to controls. Contrary to expectations based on protein expression, IGFBP2 gene expression (P = .04) was significantly decreased in IL-1β-stimulated coculture synoviocytes compared to control coculture synoviocytes. A2M gene expression in synoviocytes was not different between coculture groups.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The secretome from synoviocytes could provide a milieu of bioactive factors to restore joint homeostasis in osteoarthritis.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

for all cats throughout the study, whereas the metabolomic data for the cats fed the test food would suggest that the coconut oil, l -carnitine, lysine, leucine, and fiber contained in that food were bioavailable and used in vivo. Materials and

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, and metabolomic analyses For each dog in the treatment group, food was withheld for at least 12 hours and a blood sample (10 mL) was obtained by jugular venipuncture at baseline and monthly thereafter for the duration of the trial. Serum was

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

mineral metabolism disorder, abnormal urinary pH, and urinary tract infections (UTIs). 2 , 3 Metabolomics is a method to study the intermediate and final products of physiological metabolism. With the help of bioinformatics, it is possible to explore

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the lipidomic profile of surfactant obtained from horses with asthma at various clinical stages and to compare results with findings for healthy horses exposed to the same conditions.

SAMPLE Surfactant samples obtained from 6 horses with severe asthma and 7 healthy horses.

PROCEDURES Clinical evaluation of horses and surfactant analysis were performed. Samples obtained from horses with severe asthma and healthy horses before (baseline), during, and after exposure to hay were analyzed. Crude surfactant pellets were dried prior to dissolution in a solution of isopropanol:methanol:chloroform (4:2:1) containing 7.5mM ammonium acetate. Shotgun lipidomics were performed by use of high-resolution data acquisition on an ion-trap mass spectrometer. Findings were analyzed by use of an ANOVA with a Tukey-Kramer post hoc test.

RESULTS Results of lipidomic analysis were evaluated to detect significant differences between groups of horses and among exposure statuses within groups of horses. Significantly increased amounts of cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) and diacylglycerol (DAG) were detected in surfactant from severely asthmatic horses during exposure to hay, compared with baseline and postexposure concentrations. Concentrations of cPA and DAG did not change significantly in healthy horses regardless of exposure status.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE cPA 16:0 and DAG 36:2 were 2 novel lipid mediators identified in surfactant obtained from asthmatic horses with clinical disease. These molecules were likely biomarkers of sustained inflammation. Further studies are needed to evaluate a possible correlation with disease severity and potential alterations in the plasma lipidomic profile of horses with asthma.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate whether guaifenesin can prevent adverse anesthetic induction events caused by propofol and whether a guaifenesin-propofol induction combination has brief cardiovascular effects commensurate with rapid drug washout.

Animals—8 healthy adult horses.

Procedures—Guaifenesin was administered IV for 3 minutes followed by IV injection of a bolus of propofol (2 mg/kg). Additional propofol was administered if purposeful movement was detected. Anesthesia was maintained for 2 hours with isoflurane or sevoflurane at 1.2 times the minimum alveolar concentration with controlled normocapnic ventilation. Normotension was maintained via a dobutamine infusion. Plasma concentrations of propofol and guaifenesin were measured every 30 minutes.

Results—Mean ± SD guaifenesin and propofol doses inducing anesthesia in half of the horses were 73 ± 18 mg/kg and 2.2 ± 0.3 mg/kg, respectively. No adverse anesthetic induction events were observed. By 70 minutes, there was no significant temporal change in the dobutamine infusion rate required to maintain normotension for horses anesthetized with isoflurane or sevoflurane. Mean plasma guaifenesin concentrations were 122 ± 30μM, 101 ± 33μM, 93 ± 28μM, and 80 ± 24μM at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after anesthetic induction, respectively. All plasma propofol concentrations were below the limit of quantitation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Guaifenesin prevented adverse anesthetic induction events caused by propofol. Guaifenesin (90 mg/kg) followed by propofol (3 mg/kg) should be sufficient to immobilize > 99% of calm healthy adult horses. Anesthetic drug washout was rapid, and there was no change in inotrope requirements after anesthesia for 70 minutes.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research