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immune responses against intracellular bacteria. 14 – 19 mRNA vaccines have gained attention for their success against COVID-19 20 because they can achieve superior cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to those from traditional vaccines. 21 , 22

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

study reported here was to determine whether expression of mRNA for NAKA and NHE in samples of the nonglandular portion of the equine gastric mucosa was altered by exposure to VFAs at various pHs. Materials and Methods Horses —Ten horses (5 ≤ 5

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

production of such inflammatory mediators, 7 we hypothesized that racing Thoroughbreds with more severe grades of EIPH would have greater systemic expression of cytokine mRNA. Although, to our knowledge, proinflammatory responses have not been reported

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, α 2C , β 1 , β 2 , and β 3 ). 23 The distribution of mRNA coding for these 9 subtypes in the GIT of healthy dairy cows has been described elsewhere. 24 The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the expression of mRNA coding for

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

use of real-time RT-PCR analysis, we have reported site-specific distribution and variable abundance of mRNA coding for AR subtypes of the α 1 , α 2 -, and β-AR families in full-thickness specimens of the bovine GIT. 15 However, caution is warranted

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

antroduodenal motility in sheep. Thus, serotonin has several functions in the regulation of cyclic motor events in the GIT of ruminants, but the precise role played by specific 5-HTR subtypes is not known. The expression of mRNA coding for 5-HTR subtypes in

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

gp100 in human melanocytes and appears to be involved in the expression, stability, and trafficking of gp100 and its processing into cleaved fragments, which form the basis of the fibrillar meshwork. 11 In preliminary studies a,b of MAA mRNA

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

BMSC-derived neuron-like cells. For this reason, additional studies that use human or mouse BMSCs have been conducted to determine the mRNA expression levels of neuron markers and the electrophysiological functions of induced BMSCs. To verify the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

objective of the study reported here was to measure the expression of COX-2 mRNA in transendoscopic mucosal biopsy specimens obtained from the glandular and nonglandular regions of the equine stomach during an initial experiment to establish basal levels and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

physiologic equilibrium or homeostasis, and such disturbances are often associated with detrimental effects. 15 Therefore, the purpose of the study reported here was to examine the relationship between Hsp70 production, Hsp70 mRNA expression, metabolic

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research