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S taging is an essential step in the work-up of oral tumors. Evidence of locoregional or distant metastasis informs prognosis and invariably influences the recommended care paradigm. However, in veterinary medicine, there is no standard guideline

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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ERAS Society, has shown that hospital stay and complications can be reduced for a number of different surgical procedures such as total hip or total knee replacement as examples. 1 Recent development and routine implementation of locoregional

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the time of onset and duration of action of distal paravertebral blocks (DPB) in dairy cattle using lidocaine and lidocaine plus xylazine (LX).

ANIMALS

10 healthy adult Holstein cows.

METHODS

Unilateral DPB were performed in 6 cows at L1, L2, and L4. They received 2 treatments (lidocaine and LX) in a blinded random crossover design. Due to treatment failure, 4 additional cows were enrolled. The lidocaine treatment received 1,800 mg (90 mL) of lidocaine, and treatment LX received 1,784 mg (89.2 mL) of lidocaine and 16 mg (0.8 mL) of xylazine. Anesthesia was assessed by response (rapid movements of the tail, directed movements of the feet, or turning of the head towards the site of the needle pricks) to 6 approximately 1-cm deep needle pricks to the paralumbar fossa with a 22-gauge hypodermic needle. The time of onset, duration of action, maximum sedation score, and average heart rate (HR) were compared between treatments.

RESULTS

Duration of anesthesia was significantly prolonged after DPB in cows treated with LX (251.6 ± 96.94 minutes) compared to lidocaine (105.8 ± 35.9 minutes; P = .01). Treatment with LX was associated with significantly lower average heart rate (56 ± 3 beats/min) compared to cows treated with lidocaine (59 ± 3 beats/min; P = .045). The LX treatment was associated with mild sedation but was not significant (P = .063).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The addition of xylazine to a lidocaine DPB provides a longer duration of anesthesia, is inexpensive and practical, and can be implemented with ease.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

orbital bone and cribriform plate lyses occur, 37 , 38 it is generally considered noninvasive. Feline sino-orbital aspergillosis and feline and canine cryptococcosis have commonalities, namely their tendency to form granulomas and invade locoregional

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

liver tumors are not surgical candidates, often because of high tumor burden, tumor location, compromised liver function, involvement of adjacent vasculature, or some combination of these factors. 6,7 As a result, several locoregional treatments have

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Introduction Combining a local anesthetic with dexmedetomidine, a potent α 2 -adrenoceptor agonist, has gained popularity for locoregional anesthesia in human medicine. Such combinations have been shown to prolong sensory nerve blockade

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

combination. 3 Unfortunately, some dogs at initial evaluation already have distant metastases (stage 4 ASAGA), for which owners may be less willing to choose aggressive locoregional treatment (eg, surgical extirpation of affected lymph nodes or radiotherapy

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

as adjunctive treatment for oral MM in dogs after locoregional disease control was achieved. We tested the hypothesis that adjunctive treatment with huTyr vaccine after surgical excision of primary tumors would result in increased survival time in

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To provide a video tutorial on how to perform an alternate method for urethral catheterization, the 2-catheter technique.

ANIMALS

Small female cats and dogs that are too small for concurrent digital palpation (generally < 10 kg).

METHODS

A larger red rubber catheter (18 Fr in dogs, and 10 Fr in cats) is gently fed into the vaginal canal and reflected dorsally, then a smaller urethral catheter can be introduced ventrally, angling downwards at a 45° angle, into the urethral orifice for urinary catheterization.

RESULTS

The 2-catheter method is a useful alternative in petite female cats and dogs to improve rates of successful catheterization.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The inability to perform concurrent digital palpation in petite female dogs and cats can make urinary catheterization more challenging due to the inability to palpate locoregional anatomic landmarks and without the added manipulation of the catheter tip during placement. Using a second, larger catheter to occlude the vaginal canal similarly to how a finger would during digital palpation can aid in successful catheterization in this challenging subset of veterinary patients.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

administration in addition to the local anesthetic, making the comparison with perineural local anesthetic administration alone more challenging. Therefore, the objective of the study reported here was to compare the efficacy of these 2 locoregional anesthesia

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association