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improper catheter placement, local edema formation, infection, pain, and lameness. 5 , 6 Investigation of novel pharmacologic agents, such as extended-release (liposomal encapsulated) bupivacaine offers hope for improved analgesia. 7 Liposomal

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

hospitalization of the patient and can result in complications, such as infection at the injection or catheter site. 8,9 Liposomal bupivacaine is a recently developed local anesthetic that consists of many multivesicular liposomes. 10 Bupivacaine is released

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

placing and maintaining an epidural catheter. 8–10 Additionally, epidural injection of anesthetics may result in inadvertent recumbency of the patient. 11 A liposomal formulation of bupivacaine sustains release of bupivacaine via slow degradation of

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

in people. 14 , 15 A veterinary formulation of liposomal bupivacaine (NOCITA) is now also available. Studies of dogs undergoing stifle surgery found that this product provided local analgesia for 72 hours postoperatively and lowered the incidence of

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

infiltration (SII) with local anesthetics, most commonly bupivacaine, has been shown to be effective for 6 to 7 hours after administration in dogs. 15 , 16 In 2011, a liposomal bupivacaine injectable suspension was approved by the FDA for SII in people. This

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

osteoarthritis in horses. ABBREVIATIONS DLC Diclofenac liposomal cream dpm Disintegrations per minute MRI Magnetic resonance imaging PGE 2 Prostaglandin E 2 a. Surpass (1% diclofenac sodium) topical anti-inflammatory cream, IDEXX

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

topical application of 1% topical diclofenac sodium liposomal cream would decrease inflammation at sites of IVRLP in healthy horses. Materials and Methods Animals —Six healthy horses (2 Arabians, 1 Thoroughbred, 1 Standardbred, and 2 Quarter Horses

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

locally. One of the main drawbacks of currently available local anesthetics is their duration of action, which generally is no longer than 8 to 12 hours. 6 However, a long-acting formulation of bupivacaine (liposomal encapsulated bupivacaine) has been

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether 1% diclofenac liposomal suspension (DLS) ointment would be absorbed transdermally and attenuate experimentally induced subcutaneous inflammation in horses.

Animals—7 healthy adult horses

Procedure—Inflammation was produced by injecting 1% sterile carrageenan into subcutaneously implanted tissue cages 8 hours before (time –8) and at the time of application of test ointment. A crossover design was used. Horses received 1 of 2 treatments (topically administered control or DLS ointments) during 48 hours of carrageenan-induced subcutaneous inflammation. A single application of test ointment (7.2 g) was applied over each tissue cage (time 0). Samples of transudate and blood were collected at –8, 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, and 48 hours. Plasma and transudate diclofenac concentrations were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. Transudate concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined with a competitive enzyme immunoassay.

Results—DLS was absorbed transdermally. The highest concentration (mean ± SEM, 76.2 ± 29 ng/mL) was detectable in tissue-cage fluid within 18 hours after application. Minimal concentrations of diclofenac were detectable in plasma. Application of DLS significantly decreased transudate concentrations of PGE2 at 6 and 30 hours. Decreases in PGE2 concentration were observed in the DLS group at all collection times.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A single topical application of DLS resulted in concentrations of diclofenac in transudate within 6 hours and significantly attenuated carrageenan-induced local production of PGE2. Results of this study suggest that DLS is readily absorbed transdermally and may be efficacious for reducing subcutaneous inflammation in horses. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:271–276)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

antibiotic agents and therefore not susceptible to commonly administered perioperative antibiotics, necessitating either the use of second- or third-line antibiotics, extended hospital stays, or repeat surgery. 5 The use of injectable liposomal bupivacaine

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association