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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate plication of the free wall of the left ventricle, which reduces the left ventricular area and volume, as a method to improve the left ventricular systolic function without cardiopulmonary bypass.

Animals—8 mixed-breed adult dogs.

Procedure—Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) was induced in each dog by administration of doxorubicin (30 mg/m2, IV, q 21 d for 168 days). Two dogs died during induction of cardiomyopathy. Plication surgery was performed in 4 dogs. Two dogs did not ondergo to surgery (control group). Values for cardiac output (CO), 2-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography, arterial blood pressure, electrocardiography, blood cell counts, and serum biochemical analyses were recorded after induction of DCM (baseline) and 1, 2, 7, 15, 21, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 days after plication surgery. Ambulatory ECG (Holter) recordings were conducted for 24 hours on the day of surgery.

Results—1 dog died after plication surgery. The remaining dogs undergoing ventricular plication had a significant improvement in CO, ejection fraction, and fractional shortening and reductions of left ventricular area and volume after surgery. Electrocardiographic and Holter recordings revealed premature ventricular complexes, which resolved without treatment during the first week after surgery. Clinical condition of the control dogs declined, and these 2 dogs died approximately 40 days after induction of cardiomyopathy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Plication of the free wall of the left ventricle improved left ventricular systolic function in dogs with doxorubicininduced cardiomyopathy. Additional studies are needed to evaluate its application in dogs with naturally developing DCM. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:238–243)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of reducing the diameter of the left ventricle of dogs by plication of the left ventricular free wall.

Animals—8 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure—Left lateral thoracotomy and a T-shaped pericardiotomy were performed. The free wall of the left ventricle was imbricated with 3 interrupted transfixing sutures applied in a horizontal mattress pattern, using 3-0 polypropylene suture assembled on a straight cutting needle. Surgeons were careful to avoid the coronary vessels. Echocardiography was performed 24 hours before and 48 hours after surgery. Electrocardiography was performed before and 1, 2, 7, 15, 21, 30, and 60 days after surgery.

Results—Echocardiographic measurements revealed that the diameter of the left ventricle was reduced by a mean of 23.5%. Electrocardiography revealed ventricular premature complexes 24 hours after surgery that regressed without treatment during the first week after surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Plication of the left ventricular free wall of dogs can reduce enddiastolic and end-systolic dimensions of the left ventricle. The technique is simple and does not require cardiopulmonary bypass. According to Laplace's law, the reduction of cardiac diameter leads to reduction on free-wall tension and may improve left ventricular function in dilatated hearts. Thus, additional studies involving dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy should be conducted. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:297–300)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

= Isovolumic relaxation time. LA = Left atrium. LV = Left ventricle. LVIDd = Left ventricular internal diameter at end diastole. LVIDs = Left ventricular internal diameter at end systole. LVPWd = Left ventricular posterior wall at end diastole. LVPWs = Left

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. The purpose of the study reported here was to measure systolic intervals for the left ventricle of conscious, healthy sheep with attention to variations in heart rate. Materials and Methods Animals —Six female and 5 male Romanov sheep were

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

15 birds examined from the caudal position ( Figure 1 ). The transverse and longitudinal views of the left ventricle were similar to those obtained in cats 24 and dogs. 23 From the transverse view, caudal to cranial displacement of the probe and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

.4 ± 0.5 5.2 ± 1.4 * 2.3 ± 0.4 † 0.7 ± 0.1 * Within a variable, value differs significantly ( * P < 0.05; † P = 0.01) from value for the control cats. BW = Body weight. HW = Heart weight. LV = Left ventricle. RV = Right ventricle

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Darcy Palmer, Amy Berry, Robyn Panico, Cynthia Viramontes, and Jason Wiest for technical assistance. ABBREVIATIONS CMRI Cardiac MRI CO Cardiac output EDV End-diastolic volume ESV End-systolic volume HR Heart rate LV Left ventricle

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

parasternal short-axis view of the left ventricle (at the level of the papillary muscles and mitral valve), M-mode right parasternal short-axis view of the left ventricle (at the level of the papillary muscles and mitral valve), right parasternal short

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

dysfunction, arrhythmias, thrombotic and ischemic episodes, coronary and small vessel disease, heart failure, or sudden cardiac death. 1,4,5 Left ventricular hypertrophy (increase in size of the left ventricle) can be a physiologic adaptation to multiple

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. ABBREVIATIONS PD Pulsed Doppler TMF Transmitral flow IRT Isovolumic relaxation time LV Left ventricle MPI Myocardial performance index ET Ejection time TDI Tissue Doppler imaging LVPs Left ventricle peak systolic LVED Left ventricle end

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research