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associated with corticosteroids, collagen catabolism negatively impacts tendons and ligaments, exacerbating arthropathy, 1 and prompts the need to explore alternative, ideally prednisone-sparing, immunomodulatory therapy. Leflunomide is a disease

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

combination treatment is often sought, either to avoid complications associated with treatment with corticosteriods or for treatment of unresponsive disease. 7 Leflunomide is an immunomodulating agent that is structurally unlike any other immunomodulating

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

immunosuppressive agent leflunomide [N-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-methylisoxazol-4-carboxamide; HWA 486] is a synthetic organic isoxazole that is metabolized by the intestinal mucosa to its active form, A77. This metabolite inhibits fibroblast, smooth muscle, and T

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

diagnosis. All cultures yielded negative results. Medical treatments All 13 dogs with erosive IMPA were administered immunosuppressive therapy. Nine dogs were treated with leflunomide (2.6 to 4.5 mg/kg/d [1.2 to 2.0 mg/lb/d], PO), 3 dogs were treated

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

volume of fluids administered IV during anesthesia or the concurrent documented decrease in plasma total solids concentration. See PAGE 309 Efficacy of leflunomide for treatment of immune-mediated polyarthritis in dogs Corticosteroids are the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

of prednisone or prednisolone remains the standard treatment for primary IMPA. 6 For affected dogs with refractory disease, azathioprine, leflunomide, cyclophosphamide, levamisole, or mycophenolate mofetil can be used in combination with

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Efficacy of leflunomide for treatment of immune-mediated polyarthritis in dogs: 14 cases (2006–2008) . J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010 ; 236 : 312 – 318 . 10.2460/javma.236.3.312 6. Ohno K , Yokoyama Y , Nakashima K , et al. C-reactive protein

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

therapies, 5 , 11 often with administration of multiple drugs including corticosteroids, cytosine arabinoside, cyclosporine, azathioprine, lomustine, procarbazine, leflunomide, and mycophenolate mofetil. 12 , 13 Treatment of affected dogs with

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

secondary immunosuppressive drugs used for the treatment of NME, such as cytarabine, procarbazine, cyclosporine, lomustine, leflunomide, mycophenolate mofetil, and azathioprine. 3 There is no consensus regarding which treatment or secondary

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, azathioprine, leflunomide, mycophenolate mofetil, and vincristine with cyclophosphamide and prednisolone. 8–14 , b,c Alternatively, lomustine has been used sporadically for treatment of GME in dogs, but to our knowledge, there are no published data to date

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association