To determine setting and temperature properties of diluted polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement in vitro to assess utility for vocal fold augmentation in horses.
4 dilutions of PMMA equivalent to volumes of 15 mL, 20 mL, 25 mL, and 30 mL PMMA powder (PMMAp) in 10 mL solvent.
For each volume PMMAp, setting times (tset), peak temperatures (Tmax), and times to peak temperature (tmax) were determined using a temperature data logger in a 4-mL volume of PMMA. Injectability was assessed in vitro by documenting the force required to inject 0.2 mL PMMA through an 18-gauge 3.5-inch spinal needle attached to a 6-mL syringe at 1-minute intervals. Working time (twork) was calculated from a linear regression of injectability.
Peak temperatures increased with increasing volume of PMMAp: 56 °C, 86 °C, 99 °C, and 101 °C. Times for tset, twork, and tmax were inversely proportional to PMMA concentrations, resulting in tset of 23, 21, 17, and 14 minutes; twork of 22.75, 12.25, 7, and 4 minutes; and tmax of 28, 24, 19, and 16 minutes, respectively, for 15, 20, 25, and 30 mL PMMAp. Pairwise comparisons for all analyses were significant apart from Tmax for 25 and 30 mL PMMAp (P = .96) and twork for 20 and 25 mL PMMAp (P = .06).
Decreasing the concentration of PMMA bone cement resulted in longer working times and setting times; however, peak temperatures did not differ between the 2 strongest concentrations. Further research is warranted to quantify diluted PMMA properties for in vivo use for vocal fold augmentation in horses.
, Cairn Terrier, Cocker Spaniel, Malamute, Newfoundland, Miniature Schnauzer, American Eskimo, Poodle mixed breed, Toy Poodle, and Samoyed (1 each).
Thirteen dogs had a history of laryngealsurgery, and in 2 dogs, the history was not available. Ten dogs
after surgery does not necessarily correlate with degree of airway obstruction. 5
Laser-assisted laryngealsurgery has become increasingly popular since it was introduced in 1986, 23 and the refinement of endoscopically guided, laser-assisted surgical
aspiration including previous laryngealsurgery and known esophageal motility disorder, and if any other emesis agent was administered by the owner or referring veterinarian prior to presentation to the study hospitals.
Data extracted from medical records
postoperative period. At that time, the calf was drinking from a milk bottle. It was then trained to drink from a bucket on the floor, after which the dysphagia seemed to resolve. Horses undergoing laryngealsurgery are frequently fed on the ground to allow
confirmed that nasopharyngeal administration of pharyngeal spray is an adequate delivery method for treatment of conditions of the pharynx and larynx, which supported its use as a method for delivery of medications after palatal and laryngealsurgery and the
had had any previous BOAS or pharyngeal or laryngealsurgery.
Medical records were reviewed, and the information collected included signalment, breed, sex, age, weight, and presence or absence of clinical signs of BOAS. Dogs with clinical signs of
slaughtered. 22 In 2012, a Standardbred named Silky Shark was slaughtered for human consumption in Canada. The horse had laryngealsurgery twice and had been administered phenylbutazone. 23 As per Canadian regulations, this horse along with Backstreet Bully