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palpation in addition to a tentative clinical diagnosis of ileus. A diagnosis of ileus attributable to MT was made in cattle with severe clinical signs and when dilated small and large intestines could be palpated. An ultrasonographic diagnosis of primary

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

large intestine (ascending colon and pelvic flexure). Measurements in the small intestine were performed in all 13 horses included in the study, whereas measurements in the large intestine were conducted in 12 of 13 horses. Measurements were performed

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

ultrasonographic appearance of the omasum in healthy cows and those with RDA and AV. The aim of the study reported here was to describe the ultrasonographic appearance of the liver, small and large intestines, and omasum in cows with RDA and AV and to determine

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether the large intestine may have a role in counterbalancing the loss of fluid from the small intestine of pigs with diarrhea.

Animals

2 groups of pigs (1 from a specific-pathogen-free herd and 1 from a herd with a history of diarrhea).

Procedure

At weaning and 4, 7, 11, and 14 days after weaning, the percentage of dry matter in the large intestinal contents, total and individual concentrations of volatile fatty acids in large-intestinal contents and blood, and concentration of aldosterone in the blood were measured.

Results

Large intestinal contents of pigs with diarrhea had a lower percentage of dry matter, lower acetate and butyrate concentrations, and higher propionate concentrations than did those of specific-pathogen-free pigs, and blood of pigs with diarrhea also had lower total volatile fatty acids concentration, higher aldosterone concentration, and lower sodium concentration.

Clinical Relevance

The large intestine has a role in the pathogenesis of diarrhea in weaned pigs. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:696-703)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Uptake of ferritin by M cells in follicle-associated epithelium at various sites in the small and large intestines was examined in 4 healthy 5-week-old pigs by use of electron microscopy. A 2.5% solution of ferritin in saline was injected into ligated loops of the jejunum and ileum containing aggregations of lymphoid follicles (Peyer's patches), as well as into intestinal loops containing lymphoglandular complexes at the ileocecal junction, in the central colonic flexure, and in the rectum. As negative control, saline solution was injected into loops at identical localizations. After an exposure period of 2 hours, uptake of ferritin by M cells, but not by enteroabsorptive cells of the small and large intestines, was observed. Numbers of M cells with ferritin and total M cells were counted and the percentage was calculated. Total number of M cells was highest in lymphoglandular complexes in the rectum and lowest on domes of the ileal Peyer's patch. High numbers of M cells with ferritin were found on domes of the jejunal Peyer's patch, and in lymphoglandular complexes at the ileocecal entrance and in the rectum. Only a few M cells on domes of the ileal Peyer's patch and in lymphoglandular complexes in the central colonic flexure contained ferritin. The percentage of M cells with internalized ferritin was similar on domes of the ileal Peyer's patch, and in lymphoglandular complexes at the ileocecal junction and in the rectum. It was higher on domes of the jejunal Peyer s patches and lower in lymphoglandular complexes of the central colonic flexure. Ferritin was found in the apical tubulovesicular system, multivesicular bodies, and a few vacuoles in the central area of M cells. Ferritin was exocytosed into the lateral intercellular spaces next to M cells. Uptake of ferritin by intraepithelial cells in the follicle-associated epithelium could not be documented, but ferritin was present in vesicles of subepithelial macrophages.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe the effects of an abrupt increase of concentrates in the diet of dairy cows on myoelectric activity of the spiral colon and on fermentation patterns in the rumen and large intestine.

Animals—6 healthy lactating Simmental X Red- Holstein cows.

Procedure—The diet of 6 cows implanted with bipolar electrodes in the spiral colon was changed from hay only to a ration of 50% hay:50% starch-rich concentrates during a period of 60 hours. Myoelectric activity of the spiral colon, concentrations of absolute and undissociated volatile fatty acids (VFA), and pH of ruminal and large intestinal contents were monitored before, during, and after the dietary change.

Results—Significant changes in patterns of myoelectric activity of the spiral colon were restricted to phases III and IV of the bovine migrating myoelectric complex and to propagation velocity. Significant alterations were not observed in pH or VFA concentrations in ruminal fluid, but pH decreased and VFA concentrations increased significantly in fecal specimens after the change of diet.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Although rumen fluid is of limited value for measurement of certain indicators of fermentation, fecal samples can be used for measurement of pH and VFA concentrations, which serve as indicators of fermentation patterns in the large intestine. Increased concentrations of VFA and low pH in large intestinal digesta have a minimal influence on myoelectric activity of the spiral colon. Increased luminal VFA concentrations are unlikely to play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of motility disorders of the large intestine in cattle. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:857–867)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

– 5 report outcomes of small and large intestine surgery combined. In addition, many of these reports combine information for dogs and cats, making it difficult to determine differences among species, 2 , 4 – 6 or contain information pertaining only

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether quantification of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity could be a useful laboratory technique to detect granulocyte infiltration in equine intestinal tissues.

Sample Population

Intestinal tissue (inflamed or healthy) collected from 16 age- and sex-matched Shetland Ponies.

Procedure

Intestinal tissue MPO activity was determined, and histologic assessment of adjacent specimens from healthy and inflamed intestine was done.

Results

Intestinal tissue MPO activity and histopathologic score increased with time after castor oil challenge and peaked at 16 hours in an equine diarrhea model in which individual ponies provided their own control tissues.

Conclusions

Intestinal tissue inflammation scores correlated positively with tissue MPO activity in adjacent specimens.

Clinical Relevance

Tissue MPO assay may be a useful laboratory tool to quantify intestinal mucosal inflammation in ponies. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:807–813)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of IV administration of penicillin G potassium (KPEN) or potassium chloride (KCl) on defecation and myoelectric activity of the cecum and pelvic flexure of horses.

Animals—5 healthy horses.

Procedure—Horses with 12 bipolar electrodes on the cecum and pelvic flexure received KPEN or KCl solution by IV bolus 4 hours apart. Each horse received the following: 2 × 107 U of KPEN (high-dose KPEN) followed by 34 mEq of KCl (high-dose KCl), 1 × 107 U of KPEN (low-dose KPEN) followed by 17 mEq of KCl (low-dose KCl), high-dose KCl followed by high-dose KPEN, and low-dose KCl followed by low-dose KPEN. Number of defecations and myoelectric activity were recorded for 60 minutes. The first three 5-minute segments and first four 15-minute segments of myoelectric activity were analyzed.

Results—Number of defecations during the first 15- minute segment was greater after high-dose KPEN treatment than after high-dose or low-dose KCl treatment. Compared with reference indexes, myoelectric activity was greater in the pelvic flexure for the first 5- minute segment after high-dose KCl treatment, in the cecum and pelvic flexure for the first 5-minute segment and in the pelvic flexure for the first 15-minute segment after low-dose KPEN treatment, and in the pelvic flexure for the first and second 5-minute segments and the first three 15-minute segments after high-dose KPEN treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of KPEN stimulates defecation and myoelectric activity of the cecum and pelvic flexure in horses. Effects of KPEN may be beneficial during episodes of ileus. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1360–1363)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the dominant phyla are Firmicutes. In this study for the first time in C. porosus , using 16S rRNA sequencing, bacterial diversity was compared in the oral cavity, the small intestine, and the large intestine. Materials and Methods C

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research