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the procedure, rapid patient recovery, and diagnostic accuracy make laparoscopy an ideal technique. Laparoscopy has not only developed into a diagnostic tool but, more recently, has also become a means for minimally invasive surgical procedures in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

undergoing conventional laparoscopy with positive-pressure pneumoperitoneum. 1,6–8 In comparison with laparotomy, laparoscopy with CO 2 pneumoperitoneum for cholecystectomy results in an increase in right-sided and left-sided cardiac and pulmonary pressures

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-abdomen approaches. Presumably, a laparoscopic-assisted approach to gastrointestinal surgery may also provide similar benefits, compared with a traditional open approach. 13–16 However, we are unaware of any reported studies in which a laparoscopy was compared with

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Regardless, there were no significant differences between groups for other surgical or recovery variables. No intraoperative complications were observed in the OS group. On the other hand, technical difficulties specifically related to the laparoscopy

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

before the suspensory or uterine horn was transected. This approach allowed for good visualization of any hemorrhage from the ovarian pedicle. Hemorrhage from the ovarian pedicle is a potential complication of ovariectomy performed using laparoscopy or

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, the complication rate plateaued after 601 procedures performed over 3 years. In addition to technical challenges, the success of incorporating rigid endoscopy and laparoscopy in a general practice is contingent on economic viability. 16 In

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, relapses, and complications associated with surgical correction of LDAs. 5 Two-step laparoscopy-guided fixation of the abomasum was introduced in 1998. 11 The surgical procedure can be viewed via laparoscopy, yet is minimally invasive; consequently, the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

technique of laparoscopy-guided abomasopexy is minimally invasive. 8 Abomasal emptying rate decreases in cows with an LDA and remains decreased immediately after surgical correction of LDA by means of omentopexy via right flank laparotomy. 9 Cows with an

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Laparoscopy involves insufflation of the abdomen with CO 2 to create a working space that allows for maneuvering of an endoscope and instruments. 1 Laparoscopic procedures in dogs cause less surgical stress and postoperative pain and improve

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare diagnostic quality of percutaneous kidney biopsy specimens obtained with laparoscopy versus ultrasound guidance in dogs and compare diagnostic quality of specimens obtained with 14- versus 18-gauge biopsy needles.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—10 healthy dogs.

Procedure—In each dog, 2 biopsy specimens were obtained from each kidney, 1 with a 14-gauge biopsy needle and 1 with an 18-gauge biopsy needle. Biopsy specimens were obtained from 1 kidney by means of ultrasound guidance and from the contralateral kidney by means of direct viewing during laparoscopy. Number of glomeruli, quality of the biopsy specimen, proportion of specimens that contained muscle tissue, and proportion of specimens with fragmentation or crushing were determined.

Results—Mean ± SD number of glomeruli (32.6 ± 11.0) in laparoscopic, 14-gauge biopsy specimens was significantly higher than mean number of glomeruli in ultrasound-guided, 14-gauge specimens; mean number of glomeruli in ultrasound-guided, 18-gauge specimens; and mean number of glomeruli in laparoscopic, 18-gauge specimens. All 10 laparoscopic, 14-gauge biopsy specimens were classified as excellent. The proportion of 18-gauge biopsy specimens with crushing or fragmentation was significantly higher than the proportion of 14-gauge specimens. One of the kidneys biopsied with ultrasound guidance had a large amount of hemorrhage. Hemorrhage was modest and transient following laparoscopic biopsy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that excellent-quality renal biopsy specimens with large numbers of glomeruli can be obtained with 14-gauge, double-spring-activated biopsy needles during laparoscopy. Renal biopsy specimens obtained with 18-gauge biopsy needles frequently had few glomeruli and often were crushed or fragmented, increasing the difficulty in making an accurate diagnosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:317–321)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association