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turtles specifically, a single prospective study has investigated one protocol in a related species with good success. In ornate box turtles ( Terrapene ornata ornata ), forelimb IM administration of dexmedetomidine-ketamine-midazolam (0.1, 10, and 1.0 mg

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

The ketamine products commercially available for use in equids are a racemic mixture containing equal amounts of 2 optical isomers (ie, the R-ketamine and S-ketamine enantiomers). Although the R-enantiomer and S-enantiomer of ketamine have the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
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subcutaneous methadone (0.4 mg/kg, once) and atropine (0.02 mg/kg, once), an IV catheter was placed. General anesthesia was induced with IV ketamine (5 mg/kg, once) and midazolam (0.25 mg/kg, once) and maintained with isoflurane in 100% oxygen for 3.3 hours

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Currently, commercially available ketamine hydro-chloride for veterinary use is a racemic mixture of 2 optical isomers, the R(–) enantiomer and the S(+) enantiomer. Racemic ketamine is a popular anesthetic for use in small ruminants. 1

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

benzodiazepine (eg, midazolam) and a dissociative anesthetic (eg, ketamine). 6 Anesthesia is then maintained with additional injectable drugs (eg, ketaminexylazine-guaifenesin) or with an inhalant anesthetic (eg, isoflurane) following endotracheal intubation

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

preexisting heart disease, systemic hypertension, and ocular or intracranial hypertension. 9–13 Propofol and ketamine are IV administered anesthetic agents commonly used in dogs. Propofol abolishes laryngeal reflexes, leading to a smooth intubation. 14

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, sedation with an α 2 -adrenergic receptor agonist, such as xylazine, romifidine, or detomidine, followed by IV administration of ketamine is one of the most commonly used drug regimens for induction of anesthesia prior to maintenance of anesthesia with an

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

period. 2–4 Ketamine is an anesthetic drug with analgesic properties. It is a noncompetitive antagonist of NMDA receptors and reduces the ISOMAC in dogs 5–7 and goats, 8 MAC of enflurane in dogs, 9 and MAC of halothane in rats 10 and horses. 11

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

new anesthetic agents for prolonged surgical procedures in horses. Racemic (R-/S-) ketamine infusions have been widely used in equine anesthesia as part of the balanced anesthesia concept aiming to improve analgesia, reduce the amount of inhaled

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

potent inhaled anesthetics. 2–7 Ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic, acts as a noncompetitive antagonist at the phencyclidine site of the NMDA receptor for the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. 8,9 Ketamine produces anesthesia and analgesia and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research