Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 572 items for :

  • "joint disease" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

injury. 2–5 Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α are responsible for upregulation of SAA synthesis. 1 Studies of the SAA response to joint disease in horses are limited, but it is known that SAA

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

tangent at the TFCP in the sagittal plane throughout the full range of motion of the stifle joint in dogs without degenerative joint disease and determine the flexion angles at which the patellar ligament is perpendicular to the tibial plateau or to the

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Degenerative joint disease NRS Numerical rating scale VAS Visual analogue scale a. Canon Medical CXDI-50G Sensor, Eklin Medical Systems, Santa Clara, Calif. b. Dell Ultrasharp 2407WFP, Dell, Round Rock, Tex. c. eFilm 2.1.2, Merge Healthcare

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

examination and diagnostic imaging. Horses with degenerative joint disease secondary to a major conformational defect, acute trauma, infection, or developmental locomotor disease related to the DIPJ were not included. Data collection Data collected

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether keratan sulfate concentrations in plasma or synovial fluid from clinically normal horses were different from concentrations in horses with joint disease and whether concentrations varied with type of joint disease.

Design

Case-control study.

Animals

67 clinically normal horses, 10 clinically normal foals, and 160 horses with joint disease.

Procedure

ELISA was used to measure keratan sulfate concentrations.

Results

Mean plasma keratan sulfate concentration (mean ± SEM, 580 ± 124 ng/ml) in foals peaked at 10 weeks of age. Mean plasma keratan sulfate concentration in clinically normal horses was 200 ng/ml (95% confidence interval, 157 to 251 ng/ml). Horses with osteochondral (chip) fractures, other closed intraarticular fractures, inflammatory arthritis (synovitis), infectious arthritis, or osteochondrosis had significantly higher plasma keratan sulfate concentrations than did clinically normal horses, but horses with osteoarthritis did not.

Breed, gender, and type of joint disease affected keratan sulfate concentration in synovial fluid. Standardbreds with chip fractures of the metacarpophalangeal/ metatarsophalangeal joints had significantly higher keratan sulfate concentrations in synovial fluid than did Thoroughbreds. Keratan sulfate concentrations in synovial fluid from osteoarthritic carpal joints were lower than concentrations in normal carpal joints and tarsocrural joints with inflammatory joint disease.

Clinical Implications

Keratan sulfate concentration alone was not a specific marker of joint disease but was affected by various joint diseases. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:369–374

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare plasma and synovial fluid endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in clinically normal horses and horses with joint disease.

Animals—36 horses with joint disease, and 15 horses without joint disease.

Procedure—Horses with joint disease were assigned to 1 of the 3 groups (ie, synovitis, degenerative joint disease [DJD], or joint sepsis groups) on the basis of findings on clinical and radiographic examination and synovial fluid analysis. Endothelin-1 and NO concentrations were measured in plasma from blood samples, collected from the jugular vein and ipsilateral cephalic or saphenous vein of the limb with an affected or unaffected joint, as well as in synovial fluid samples obtained via arthrocentesis from the involved joint.

Results—Plasma ET-1 concentrations between affected and unaffected groups were not significantly different. Median concentration and concentration range of ET-1 in synovial fluid obtained from the joint sepsis group (35.830 pg/mL, 7.926 to 86.614 pg/mL; n = 7) were significantly greater than values from the synovitis (17.531 pg/mL, 0.01 to 46.908 pg/mL; 18), DJD (22.858 pg/mL, 0.01 to 49.990 pg/mL; 10), and unaffected (10.547 pg/mL, 0.01 to 35.927 pg/mL; 10) groups. Plasma and synovial fluid NO concentrations between affected and unaffected groups were not significantly different.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Endothelin-1 is locally synthesized in the joints of horses with various types of joint disease. Synovial fluid concentrations of ET-1 varied among horses with joint disease, with concentrations significantly higher in the synovial fluid of horses with joint sepsis. These results indicate that ET-1 may play a role in the pathophysiologic mechanism of joint disease in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1648–1654)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of radiographic evidence of degenerative joint disease (DJD) in geriatric cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Population—100 cats > 12 years of age.

Procedure—One investigator reviewed radiographs and for each articulation (or group of articulations) that was visible assigned a grade of severity (0, 1, 2, 3) for DJD. Another investigator reviewed medical records and recorded signalment, environment, previous disease, diseases evident at time of radiography, FeLV vaccination and infection status, feline immunodeficiency virus serologic status, serum creatinine concentration, serum globulin concentration, and any other important findings. Associations between DJD of grade 2 or 3 and variables recorded from the medical record were determined.

Results—Radiographic evidence of DJD was evident in 90% of cats. Neurologic disease was associated with lesions in the lumbosacral portion of the vertebral column. Severe lesions were found in 17% of the elbow joints, but an underlying cause was not determined.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Degenerative joint disease was detected radiographically in most geriatric cats and may be an overlooked cause of clinical disease. Clinicians should be alert to the possibility that DJD is associated with neurologic signs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:628–632)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Passive coxofemoral joint laxity of dogs, as quantitated by a distraction-stress radiographic method, may have important prognostic value in determining susceptibility to hip dysplasia. Data from 151 dogs, representing 13 breeds, were included in a logistic regression model to evaluate the contribution of factors such as age, breed, weight, sex, distraction index, and Norberg angle to the risk of developing degenerative joint disease (djd) of the coxofemoral joint. Of the factors studied, the amount of passive hip laxity, as quantitated by the distraction index, was the most significant (P < 0.0001) determinant of the risk to develop djd of the coxofemoral joint. In the longitudinal and crosssectional components of the study, distraction index was a significant (P < 0.001) risk factor for djd, irrespective of age at evaluation (4, 12, or 24 months). The strength of the hip laxity:djd correlation increased with the age of dog. In contrast, the Norberg angle, a measure of hip laxity on the standard hip-extended radiograph, was not found to be a significant risk factor for djd, either in the longitudinal or cross-sectional analyses. Breed-specific probability curves of djd susceptibility indicated that German Shepherd Dogs had a significantly (P < 0.05) greater risk of developing djd than did the pool of non-German Shepherd Dogs. The information derived from this statistical model will help to scientifically characterize the role of passive hip laxity as a component in the pathogenesis of djd of the coxofemoral joint.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives—To determine concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 in synovial fluid; and mRNA expression of MMP-1, -13, and -3; interleukin[ IL]-1α and β; and tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α in synovial membrane and articular cartilage from horses with naturally occurring joint disease.

Sample Population—Synovial fluid (n = 76), synovial membrane (59), and articular cartilage (45) from 5 clinically normal horses and 55 horses with joint disease categorized as traumatic (acute [AT] or chronic [CT]), osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), or septic (S).

Procedure—Synovial fluid gelatinase concentrations were analyzed, using zymography. Synovial membrane and articular cartilage mRNA expression for MMP-1, -3, and -13, IL-1α and β, TNF-α, type-II collagen, and aggrecan were analyzed, using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.

Results—Synovial fluid pro-MMP-2 concentration was significantly higher in diseased joints than normal joints. Septic joints had significantly higher concentrations of pro and active MMP-9. Stromelysin-1 was expressed in ≥ 80% of synovial membrane and articular cartilage samples and was strongly influenced by age. Collagenases were rarely expressed, with MMP- 13 expressed only in diseased joints. Interleukin-1β expression was significantly higher in all OCD samples and was influenced by age. Tumor necrosis factor- α expression was significantly higher in cartilage from joints with AT and OCD. There was no correlation between MMP or cytokines and type-II collagen or aggrecan expression.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Matrix metalloproteinase- 2 and -3 are abundant in naturally occurring joint disease and normal joints. Interleukin-1β and TNF-α may be important in the pathogenesis of OCD. Age affects MMP and IL-1β concentrations. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1467–1477)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the effects of age and joint disease on hydroxyproline and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentrations in synovial fluid from the metacarpophalangeal joint of horses and evaluate the association of those concentrations with severity of osteoarthritis and general matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity.

Sample Population—Synovial fluid was collected from the metacarpophalangeal joints of foals at birth (n = 10), 5-month-old foals (10), 11-month-old foals (5), and adult horses (73).

Procedure—Hydroxyproline and GAG concentrations were determined in synovial fluid samples. The severity of osteoarthritis in adult joints was quantified by use of a cartilage degeneration index (CDI) and assessment of general MMP-activity via a fluorogenic assay.

Results—Hydroxyproline and GAG concentrations in synovial fluid were highest in neonates and decreased with age. Concentrations reached a plateau in adults by 4 years and remained constant in healthy joints. In synovial fluid from osteoarthritic joints, hydroxyproline and GAG concentrations were not increased, compared with unaffected joints, but hydroxyproline were significantly correlated with the CDI and general MMP activity. There was no significant correlation between GAG concentration and CDI value or MMP activity.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Changes in hydroxyproline concentration in synovial fluid appeared to indicate damage to collagen of the articular cartilage. In joints with osteoarthritis, the lack of high GAG concentration in synovial fluid and the absence of a significant correlation between GAG concentration and CDI values or MMP activity may severely limit the usefulness of this marker for monitoring equine joint disease (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;65:296–302)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research