Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 145 items for :

  • "itraconazole" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

devoid of organisms, detection of Histoplasma antigen in urine by enzyme immunoassay has been shown to be highly sensitive (94%) and specific (97% to 100%) in diagnosing feline histoplasmosis cases. 6 , 13 Itraconazole and fluconazole, sometimes in

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Systemic fungal infections, such as blastomycosis and histoplasmosis, can be fatal in cats if not treated promptly with effective antifungal agents such as itraconazole. 1–4 Itraconazole is a broad-spectrum, synthetic triazole antifungal drug

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Cytology of the dermatologic nodules revealed Histoplasma yeast. Itraconazole was prescribed at 5 mg/kg, orally, every 12 hours. Two weeks later she developed pelvic limb edema and abdominal fluid distension. CBC showed a 20.2% hematocrit (RI, 30.3 to

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. 32 However, very few of these drugs, such as allopurinol and the azole derivatives itraconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, and ravuconazole, have been tested in human clinical trials. 32 Antifungal azoles work by disrupting the

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

following medical treatment with ergosterol-targeting drugs, such as itraconazole, terbinafine, and amphotericin B. 1,6–8 Such responses, although infrequent, suggest a need for further investigation regarding the effects of these drugs on pathogenic

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of itraconazole after IV or oral administration of a solution or capsules to horses and to examine disposition of itraconazole in the interstitial fluid (ISF), aqueous humor, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes after oral administration of the solution.

Animals—6 healthy horses.

Procedure—Horses were administered itraconazole solution (5 mg/kg) by nasogastric tube, and samples of plasma, ISF, aqueous humor, and leukocytes were obtained. Horses were then administered itraconazole capsules (5 mg/kg), and plasma was obtained. Three horses were administered itraconazole (1.5 mg/kg, IV), and plasma samples were obtained. All samples were analyzed by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma protein binding was determined. Data were analyzed by compartmental and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic methods.

Results—Itraconazole reached higher mean ± SD plasma concentrations after administration of the solution (0.41 ± 0.13 µg/mL) versus the capsules (0.15 ± 0.12 µg/mL). Bioavailability after administration of capsules relative to solution was 33.83 ± 33.08%. Similar to other species, itraconazole has a high volume of distribution (6.3 ± 0.94 L/kg) and a long half-life (11.3 ± 2.84 hours). Itraconazole was not detected in the ISF, aqueous humor, or leukocytes. Plasma protein binding was 98.81 ± 0.17%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Itraconazole administered orally as a solution had higher, more consistent absorption than orally administered capsules and attained plasma concentrations that are inhibitory against fungi that infect horses. Administration of itraconazole solution (5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) is suggested for use in clinical trials to test the efficacy of itraconazole in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1694–1701)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the disposition of itraconazole in cats after single IV and oral dosing (as a solution or capsule) and multiple oral (capsule) dosing, and to establish bioavailability after oral administration of the solution.

Animals

6 healthy cats for experiment 1 (E1), and 12 cats for experiment 2 (E2).

Procedure

For E1 (nonrandomized crossover design), each cat received a single dose of itraconazole solution (5 mg/kg of body weight) orally, and 1 month later, another dose IV. Blood samples were collected for 96 hours. For E2, each cat was given either 5 (group [G] 1) or 10 (G2) mg of itraconazole/kg (capsules) twice daily for 6 weeks. Samples were collected for 96 hours after the first and last dose. Itraconazole was detected by use of high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results

For E1, itraconazole plasma drug concentration extrapolated to time zero (IV dose) was 5.2 ±1.4 μg/ml, and mean residence time (MRT) was 37 ± 16 hours. For oral dosing, maximal itraconazole concentration was 1.69 ± 0.864 μg/ml, MRT was 48 ± 17 hours, and bioavailability was 78.8 ± 28%. For the multiple oral dosing study, MRT (at last dose: 81.1 ± 97.4 hours for G1, and 63.1 ± 15.1 hours for G2) was shorter (P = 0.02) at first dose, compared with last dose, for both groups but did not differ between groups. Maximal concentration did not differ between groups at either time. Steady state was achieved at 14 to 21 days. All cats tolerated itraconazole with no evidence of adverse effects.

Conclusions

The oral itraconazole solution is preferred to capsules; a 24-hour dosing interval should be sufficient; 10 mg/kg given daily should generate therapeutic concentrations in most cats; steady-state concentrations may take up to 3 weeks to achieve; and cats appear to tolerate itraconazole well. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:872–877)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—

To evaluate the efficacy of itraconazole-dimethyl sulfoxide ointment for treatment of keratomycosis in horses in the northeastern United States.

Design—

Prospective clinical trial.

Animals—

9 horses (10 affected eyes).

Procedure—

All horses treated for keratomycosis at Cornell University between July 1994 and July 1996 were included in the study. The diagnosis of keratomycosis was confirmed by cytologic examination, and all horses were treated with 0.25 ml of a 1% itraconazole-30% dimethyl sulfoxide petrolatum-based ointment, applied to the affected eye every 4 hours.

Results—

Topical application of itraconazole-dimethyl sulfoxide ointment (q 4 h) resolved keratomycosis in 8 of 10 eyes; mean duration of treatment was 34.6 days (range, 16 to 53 days).

Clinical Implications—

Results of this study indicate topical administration of itraconazole-dimethyl sulfoxide ointment may provide an additional treatment option for horses with keratomycosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:199–203)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

During the first part of a study, cats were inoculated with Cryptococcus neoformans via the following routes: intradermal, intranasal, iv, and intracisternal. Only use of the iv route of inoculation consistently induced disseminated cryptococcosis. In the second part of the study, disseminated cryptococcosis was experimentally induced in cats via iv inoculation of C neoformans. One month after inoculation, 3 cats were treated with ketoconazole (10 mg/kg of body weight/d) and 3 cats were treated with itraconazole (10 mg/kg/d) for 3 months. One of the ketoconzole-treated and 2 of the itraconazole-treated cats also had cryptococcosis of the cns when treatment was begun. During treatment, serum cryptococcal antigen titer progressively decreased in all cats. Abnormalities in cbc values or the serum biochemical profile were not found in any cat during treatment. However, all ketoconazole-treated cats became anorectic and lost weight. Side effects were not seen in itraconazole-treated cats. During the 3-month posttreatment observation period, all cats remained healthy. At necropsy, histologic evidence of cryptococcosis was not found in the 3 ketoconazole-treated cats or in 2 of the itraconazole-treated cats. In the third itraconazole-treated cat, cryptococcal organisms were found in the kidneys.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—

To determine efficacy of orally administered itraconazole in cats with dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis.

Design—

Uncontrolled clinical trial.

Animals—

15 cats with dermatophytosis caused by M canis.

Procedure—

All cats were treated with itraconazole (1.5 to 3.0 mg/kg [0.7 to 1.4 mg/lb] of body weight, PO, q 24 h, for 15 days). Six cats had been treated with griseofulvin (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) during a 60-day period, but their clinical condition had not improved. Five cats treated at the highest dosage of itraconazole vomited or became anorectic. Consequently, dosages were progressively decreased for each cat until adverse effects were not evident. After treatment, samples of hair were submitted for fungal cultures, and if appropriate, treatment was repeated when culture results were positive.

Results—

8 cats treated with itraconazole recovered completely, as indicated by resolution of lesions and negative results of fungal cultures. Six of these 8 cats received a single 15-day course of treatment, whereas the remaining 2 cats needed prolonged treatment (two 15-day courses of treatment and three 15-day courses of treatment). In 4 other cats that became clinically normal, M canis was isolated from hair samples obtained at the completion of treatment, even though only 1 colony or a small number of colonies was isolated. In the other 3 cats, itraconazole did not cause clinical improvement, and culture results remained positive.

Clinical Implications—

Oral administration of itraconazole at dosages of 1.5 to 3.0 mg/kg may be useful for the treatment of cats with dermatophytosis attributable to M canis infections. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998:213:993-995)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association