Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 19 items for :

  • "intranasal vaccine" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate behavioral compliance of horses and ponies with simulated intranasal vaccination and assess development of generalized aversion to veterinary manipulations.

Design—Clinical trial.

Animals—28 light horse mares, 3 pony geldings, 2 light horse stallions, and 3 pony stallions that had a history of compliance with veterinary procedures.

Procedure—Behavioral compliance with 2 intranasal vaccine applicators was assessed. Compliance with standard physical examination procedures was assessed before and after a single experience with either of the applicators or a control manipulation to evaluate development of generalized aversion to veterinary manipulation.

Results—In all 30 horses, simulated intranasal vaccination or the control manipulation could be performed without problematic avoidance behavior, and simulated intranasal vaccination did not have any significant effect on duration of or compliance with a standardized physical examination that included manipulation of the ears, nose, and mouth. Results were similar for the 2 intranasal vaccine applicators, and no difference in compliance was seen between horses in which warm versus cold applicators were used. For 3 of the 6 ponies, substantial avoidance behavior was observed in association with simulated intranasal vaccination, and compliance with physical examination procedures decreased after simulated intranasal vaccination.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although some compliance problems were seen with ponies, neither problems with compliance with simulated intranasal vaccination nor adverse effects on subsequent physical examination were identified in any of the horses. Further study is needed to understand factors involved in practitioner reports of aversion developing in association with intranasal vaccination. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1689–1693)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare antibody responses to intranasal and SC Bordetella bronchiseptica vaccines in seropositive dogs.

Design—Randomized controlled study.

Animals—40 young adult Beagles vaccinated against B bronchiseptica.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups (intranasal vaccine, SC vaccine, intranasal and SC vaccines, no vaccine) and vaccinated on day 0. Serum and salivary B bronchiseptica-reactive antibody responses were measured on days 0 through 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28.

Results—Dogs that were vaccinated with the SC vaccine, alone or in combination with the intranasal vaccine, had a significant increase in serum concentration of B bronchiseptica-reactive IgG beginning on day 5 and persisting through day 28. Dogs that were vaccinated with the intranasal vaccine alone had a significant increase in serum concentration of B bronchiseptica- reactive IgG beginning on day 10 and persisting through day 28, but serum IgG concentration in these dogs was significantly less than concentration in dogs that received the SC vaccine. Neither vaccine had a demonstrable effect on salivary concentrations of B bronchiseptica-reactive IgA or IgG. On day 10, all vaccinated groups had significantly higher serum IgA concentrations than did unvaccinated control dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the SC B bronchiseptica vaccine may be used to stimulate antibody responses in seropositive dogs. There was no apparent benefit to administering these vaccines simultaneously. Intranasal vaccines may not be effective for booster vaccination of dogs previously exposed to or immunized against B bronchiseptica. Dogs should be vaccinated at least 5 days prior to exposure to B bronchiseptica. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:43–48)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Compare immune responses induced by 2 commercial intranasal (IN) modified-live viral (MLV) vaccines given individually or coadministered and evaluate prevention of infection and lung pathology following bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) challenge.

ANIMALS

36 male Holstein calves (ages, 5 to 12 days).

METHODS

In a randomized complete block design, each calf received an IN injection of either vaccine diluent (Placebo), an MLV vaccine containing bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1; N3), bovine coronavirus vaccine (BC), or both N3 and BC (BC + N3) with a booster 4 weeks later. Nasal secretions and blood were collected weekly. Three weeks after the booster, the calves were challenged with BHV-1, sampled for virus shedding, and euthanized 10 days later to quantify lung pathology. The study period was September 7, 2020, to April 6, 2021.

RESULTS

Calves were seropositive for BHV-1 and BC before vaccination. No significant difference in BC-specific serum immunoglobin G and nasal immunoglobin A antibody responses in the BC versus BC + N3 group or BHV-1–specific serum immunoglobin G and nasal immunoglobin A antibody responses in the N3 versus BC + N3 group. Cytokine responses to BHV-1 and BC did not differ among groups. BHV-1 shedding after challenge was significantly reduced in N3 groups versus Placebo and BC. There was a significant reduction in lung pathology in the N3 + BC group versus Placebo.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study provides evidence an MLV vaccine containing BHV-1 and an MLV BC vaccine can be coadministered to neonatal calves without significantly altering immune responses to the 2 viruses or compromising the prevention of BHV-1 respiratory disease. Calves receiving the BC + N3 vaccine had a significant reduction in lung pathology after BHV-1 aerosol challenge.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop and characterize a cold-adapted live attenuated equine-2 influenza virus effective as an intranasal vaccine.

Animals—8 ponies approximately 18 months of age.

Procedures—A wild-type equine-2 virus, A/Equine/ Kentucky/1/91 (H3N8), was serially passaged in embryonated chicken eggs at temperatures gradually reduced in a stepwise manner from 34 C to 30 C to 28 C to 26 C. At different passages, infected allantoic fluids were tested for the ability of progeny virus to replicate in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells at 34 C and 39.5 C. Virus clones that replicated at 26 C in eggs and at 34 C in MDCK cells, but not at 39.5 C in MDCK cells, were tested for stability of the coldadapted, temperature-sensitive (ts), and protein synthesis phenotypes. A stable clone, P821, was evaluated for safety, ability to replicate, and immunogenicity after intranasal administration in ponies.

Results—Randomly selected clones from the 49th passage were all ts with plaquing efficiencies of < 10-6 (ratio of 39.5 C:34 C) and retained this phenotype after 5 serial passages at 34 C in either embryonated eggs or MDCK cells. The clone selected as the vaccine candidate (P821) had the desired degree of attenuation. Administered intranasally to seronegative ponies, the virus caused no adverse reactions or overt signs of clinical disease, replicated in the upper portion of the respiratory tract, and induced a strong serum antibody response.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—A candidate live attenuated influenza vaccine virus was derived by cold-adaptation of a wild-type equine-2 influenza virus, A/Equine/Kentucky/1/91, in embryonated eggs. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1290–1294)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

passively immune calves Recently, there has been renewed interest in using intranasal vaccines as a means of improving prophylaxis against bovine respiratory syncytial virus in calves. In a controlled challenge study involving 84 dairy calves between 3 and

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. In the early 1980s, combination intranasal vaccines containing CPIV together with B bronchiseptica were developed and tested. 20,54 In the first study 20 of such experimental vaccines, seronegative 8- to 16-week-old mixed-breed farm dogs were

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

subsp equi with an intranasal vaccine within 24 mo before the onset of clinical signs * 10 (15) 17 (16)   Survived 107 (99) 211 (98) Values represent the number (%) or median (IQR [25th to 75th percentiles]). Within cases or

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

use in animals, so why do we think it is safe to inhale them? Have the vaccine companies proven that the material produced when a dog or cat sneezes during vaccination with an intranasal vaccine has no biological consequences when inhaled by people? Is

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

intranasal vaccines to prevent tracheobronchitis (kennel cough) in dogs entering a humane shelter . Prev Vet Med 2004 ; 62 : 89 – 99 . 20 Thrusfield MV Aitken CGG Muirhead RH . A field investigation of kennel cough: efficacy of different

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Nasisse MP , et al . Effect of a live attenuated intranasal vaccine on latency and shedding of feline her-pesvirus 1 in domestic cats . Arch Virol 1997 ; 142 : 2389 – 2400 . 17 Maggs DJ Clarke HE . Relative sensitivity of polymerase chain

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association