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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To provide a video tutorial detailing how to perform “blind” and ultrasound-guided abdominocentesis for diagnostic and therapeutic guidance, and to provide a brief demonstration of intra-abdominal pressure measurement (IAP).

ANIMALS

Any cat or dog with suspicion of free abdominal effusion or patients requiring measurement of IAP.

METHODS

Abdominocentesis should be performed when there is high suspicion for peritoneal effusion based on physical exam and/or diagnostic imaging. The 4-quadrant tap uses 20-gauge or larger needles placed blindly in ≥ 1 of the 4 quadrants of the abdomen to collect abdominal fluid. In contrast, ultrasound allows visualization of fluid in the abdomen prior to percutaneous insertion of a needle and syringe to collect fluid. Regardless of collection technique, fluid should have immediate cytologic analysis and later can be submitted for biochemical parameters, additional cellular analysis by a pathologist, and culture and sensitivity (in rare cases if indicated). Intravesicular bladder pressure measurement using a manometer–urinary catheter system approximates the IAP when there is concern for organ hypoperfusion and compartment syndrome.

RESULTS

Abdominocentesis can be performed with and without the use of ultrasound guidance. Intravesicular bladder pressure measurement is used to diagnose and trend IAP values before and after treatments are performed.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Abdominocentesis is a simple and safe technique that all small animal clinicians should be comfortable performing. Effusion sampling can guide further diagnostics and treatments. Measurement of IAP is simple and requires no specialized equipment.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

pneumoperitoneal volumes. ABBREVIATIONS P etco 2 End-tidal partial pressure of CO 2 IAP Intra-abdominal pressure Footnotes a. Charles River Laboratories, Saint-Constant, QC, Canada. b. Sandoz Canada Inc, Boucherville, QC, Canada. c

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

P regnancy encompasses numerous physiological changes associated with the maternal adaptation to increased intra-abdominal contents. While an acute elevation in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) has the potential to result in significant organ

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

increase from 4 to 8 mm Hg and from 8 to 12 mm Hg. 18 However, there was a smaller increase in working space when increasing the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) from 8 to 12 mm Hg compared to 4 to 8 mm Hg. The authors concluded that the increase in working

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

was completed, horses were allowed to stand quietly in the stocks for 10 minutes. Baseline hemodynamic and intra-abdominal pressures then were obtained. The intraperitoneal cannulas were removed. Horses were moved to a stall for the induction of

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether the cranial portion of the vagina of dogs is a suitable site for measuring intra-abdominal pressure during cystometry.

Animals

16 bitches (8 sexually intact and 8 spayed).

Procedure

2 types of vaginal catheters were used to measure intra-abdominal pressure changes in anesthetized dogs. Catheters were inserted in the rectum and cranial portion of the vagina.

Results

Intra-abdominal pressure variations were detected with greater magnitude in the rectum than the cranial portion of the vagina, regardless of type of catheter used and reproductive status (sexually intact vs spayed) of the dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

The rectum was the better site for measuring intra-abdominal pressure changes in female dogs. Measurement of intra-abdominal pressure with concomitant measurement of intravesical pressure to determine detrusor pressure during cystometry in female dogs is more reliably detected from the rectum than the cranial portion of the vagina. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1411–1414)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Distensibility index GERD Gastroesophageal reflux disease IAP Intra-abdominal pressure IBP Intraballoon pressure LES Lower esophageal sphincter MD Minimal diameter Footnotes a. EndoTIP, Karl Storz Veterinary Endoscopy, Goleta, Calif. b

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

changes in intra-abdominal pressures (IAP), which could be seen secondary to a leak in the rectal wall with perforation or insufflation of the colon cranial to the gauze, intravesical pressure was measured with a urinary catheter advanced into the bladder

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

portal in place, prior to induction of pneumoperitoneum. Intra-abdominal pressures of 4, 8, and 15 mm Hg were then created with a mechanical insufflator in a randomized sequence, which was established for each cat with the aid of a randomization program

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the cardiovascular effects of 60 minutes of abdominal insufflation with CO2 to an intra-abdominal pressure of 15 mm Hg in standing horses receiving a constant rate infusion of detomidine.

Animals—5 horses.

Procedure—Horses were randomly allocated into treatment or control groups. A washout period of a minimum of 7 days separated the 2 experimental periods of the crossover study. Catheters were placed into the right atrium, pulmonary artery, jugular vein, and right transverse facial artery after lidocaine infiltration. All horses were sedated with detomidine (8.54 µg/kg/h, IV). Horses in the treatment group received abdominal insufflation with CO2 via a laparoscopic cannula to a final and constant intraabdominal pressure of 15 mm Hg for 60 minutes. Systemic arterial pressure, right atrial pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, core body temperature, and the pH and gas tensions of arterial and mixed venous blood were obtained. Cardiac index and systemic vascular resistance were calculated. Data were collected in 3 stages: preinsufflation (–10 and –5 minutes), insufflation (0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes), and postinsufflation (70 and 80 minutes). The quality of sedation and level of analgesia were determined.

Results—The PaO2 of horses in the treatment group was significantly higher after 60 minutes of pneumoperitoneum than in the control group. Core body temperature decreased significantly from baseline in both groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A 60-minute period of abdominal insufflation to an intra-abdominal pressure of 15 mm Hg did not induce significant cardiovascular abnormalities in healthy horses. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:357–362)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research