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humans and rodents. 8 Aging dogs also experience insulin resistance and increased fasting insulin levels, 9 – 12 metabolic changes associated with multiple age-related pathologies in humans and rodents. 13 , 14 Age-associated changes in adipose mass

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Insulin resistance is defined as a reduction in the action of insulin on target tissues, and it is an important component of insulin dysregulation in horses. Insulin dysregulation, abnormally increased adiposity, altered adipokine concentrations

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

insulin secretion or sensitivity, compared with domestic ruminants. These high blood glucose concentrations are thought to be normal in camelids, although a number of hyperglycemic disorders have been described, including stress hyperglycemia, 2

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

complications that have occurred in humans. In humans, severe hypertriglyceridemia is thought to be related to insulin resistance and the development of diabetes mellitus. 8–12 Insulin resistance appears to be an important component of familial forms of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Protamine zinc insulin is a long-acting insulin preparation in which protamine and zinc are complexed with insulin to delay insulin absorption after injection and thus prolong its duration of effect. 1 Insulin is released from the site of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

to developing hyperinsulinemia and laminitis when grazing on pastures that contain forages high in water-soluble carbohydrates. 13–15 Moreover, sustained elevated concentrations of insulin in human lymphocytes 16 and in mice 17 can induce IR at the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Insulin resistance is a condition in which there is a decrease in the physiologic response to insulin. 1 Insulin resistance has been implicated in the pathogenesis of equine diseases such as hyperlipemia 2 and laminitis 3–5 and is a component

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Diabetes mellitus occurs commonly in dogs and is controlled with daily insulin administration. 1 Insulin types commonly used for treatment of diabetes mellitus in dogs include porcine insulin zinc suspension, 2 recombinant human NPH insulin, 3

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Among the numerous functions of thyroid hormones is their integral role in glucose homeostasis. Hypothyroidism has been associated with poor glycemic control in diabetic dogs but has been suggested to be an uncommon cause of insulin resistance. 1

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

to horses and ponies has been implicated in the development of laminitis. 1–4 It has been suggested that glucocorticoid treatment increases risk of laminitis via induction of insulin resistance, 1,2 and recent studies 5,6 have yielded evidence for

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research