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Inflammatory airway disease, as defined by a 2007 consensus statement from the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, is a disease of adult horses defined by exercise intolerance, nonseptic airway inflammation, abnormal pulmonary

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

nasal airflow IAD Inflammatory airway disease PC35 Concentration of histamine required to increase total airway impedance by 35% RAO Recurrent airway obstruction a. Bayly WM, Mitten L, Hines MT, et al. Repeated doses of aerosolized

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (balf), including phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes, was performed on 32 Standardbreds with poor race performance and endoscopic examination findings characteristic of inflammatory airway disease (iad). Nucleated cell counts in balf from iad-affected horses were higher than those in control horses; the cytologic profile of balf in affected horses included mixed inflammation, characterized by mild neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, and monocytosis. Eosinophil and mast cell counts were not higher in the iad-affected group, compared with those in the control group; however, 4 iad-affected horses had marked eosinophilia (24.7 ± 4.8% SEM) in balf. Phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes in balf obtained from IAD-affected horses revealed a low proportion of CD4-positive cells and B cells, compared with those in the control group; these findings may have been representative of a greater proportion of non-B, non-T cells (null cells) in horses with iad. The cytologic profile of balf obtained from horses with iad differed from that in horses affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting that the pathogenesis of inflammation in horses with iad may differ from that of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

pulmonary inflammatory conditions recently referred to as equine asthma syndrome. 1 Inflammatory airway disease affects young athletic horses that have no clinical signs at rest or have mild clinical signs such as intermittent cough; these horses may have

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine if multistrain probiotics administered to asthmatic cats treated with anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids would attenuate the asthmatic phenotype and beneficially alter respiratory, blood, and oropharyngeal (OP) microbial communities and immune parameters versus placebo.

ANIMALS

13 client-owned asthmatic cats.

METHODS

A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial of asthmatic cats receiving anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids with oral multistrain probiotics or placebo assessed owner-perceived improvement and airway eosinophilia at baseline and after 2 weeks of treatment. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), blood, OP, and rectal microbial communities were compared using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Real-time PCR for transcription factors, activation markers and cytokines, and IgA ELISAs were evaluated. Statistical analyses used 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA or permutational ANOVA (significance, P < .05).

RESULTS

After treatment, there were no significant differences in owner-perceived clinical signs or mean ± SEM BALF eosinophils between groups. There was a significant decrease in rectal α-diversity but not in α- or β-diversity in BALF, blood, or OP between groups or over time. There were no significant differences in CD25, FoxP3, GATA, Helios, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, IFN-γ mRNA, or serum or BALF IgA between groups or over time.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In asthmatic cats, oral multistrain probiotics failed to improve owner-perceived signs, reduce airway eosinophilia, modify microbial community composition, or alter assessed immune responses versus placebo or over time. Longer treatment, different probiotic composition or delivery (eg, aerosolized), or larger number of cats would represent the next stages of study.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Inflammatory airway disease is a performance-limiting condition of athletic horses and is characterized by alterations in pulmonary function, such as airway hyperresponsiveness, expiratory flow limitation, and impaired gas exchange during exercise

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. ABBREVIATIONS AWC Airway collapse BAL Bronchoalveolar lavage EBP Eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy IAD Inflammatory airway disease LRTI Lower respiratory tract infection Footnotes a. Karl Storz 0 degree rigid telescope, Karl Storz, Goleta

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Tracheobronchial aspirates obtained from 66 healthy Thoroughbred racehorses in training at the same track were examined. Twenty-seven percent of the horses had > 20% neutrophils in the aspirate. Eosinophils, mast cells, giant cells, and Curschmann's spirals of mucus were observed in 94, 83, 65, and 42% of the horses, respectively. Hemosiderophages were observed in 86% of the horses, half of which had previous confirmation of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. Although fungal elements were seen in 70% of the horses, bacteria were detected in only 3% of the horses. The authors conclude that inflammatory airway disease is widespread in the racing Thoroughbred population.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To examine the effects of an aerosolized β2-adrenoreceptor agonist, albuterol, on performance during a standardized incremental exercise test in clinically normal horses.

Animals—8 Standardbred pacing mares.

Procedure—Clinically normal horses, as judged by use of physical examination, hematologic findings, serum biochemical analysis, and airway endoscopy, were randomly assigned to 2 groups and were given 900 µg of albuterol via a metered-dose inhaler 30 minutes before beginning a standardized incremental exercise test in a crossover design with a 7-day minimum washout. Further examination included measurement of baseline lung mechanics, response to histamine bronchoprovocation, and bronchoalveolar lavage.

Results—No significant differences (albuterol vs placebo) were seen for any incremental exercise test variables (ie, maximum oxygen consumption, maximum carbon dioxide consumption, respiratory quotient, treadmill speed at heart rate of 200 beats/min, or number of steps completed during an incremental exercise protocol). Mast cell percentage was significantly (r = –0.84) associated with the concentration of aerosolized histamine that evoked a 100% increase in total respiratory system resistance. No other direct correlations between bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell types and any indices of exercise capacity or airway reactivity were found.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although no horse had exercise intolerance, 4 horses had airway hyperreactivity with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid mastocytosis; these horses may have been subclinically affected with inflammatory airway disease. In our study, albuterol did not enhance performance in 8 clinically normal racing-fit Standardbreds. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1812–1817)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the association among clinical signs, results of cytologic evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and measures of pulmonary function in horses with inflammatory respiratory disease.

Animals—9 healthy horses, 5 horses with inflammatory airway disease (IAD), and 9 horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Procedure—Clinical examination, lung function tests, and BAL were performed on each horse.

Results—Standard lung mechanics of horses with exacerbated COPD differed significantly from those of healthy horses; however, there were few differences among horses with IAD, horses with COPD during remission, and healthy horses. Most variables for forced expiration (FE) in horses with COPD or IAD differed significantly from those for healthy horses. Results of clinical examination had low to moderate sensitivity and predictive values for a diagnosis of COPD (range, 67 to 80%). Results of FE tests had high sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for a diagnosis of COPD (79 to 100%), and results of standard lung mechanics tests had low sensitivity and predictive values (22 to 69%). Percentage of neutrophils in BAL fluid was highly sensitive (100%) but moderately specific (64%) for a diagnosis of COPD.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Clinical examination is moderately accurate for establishing a diagnosis of COPD. Forced expiration tests can specifically detect early signs of airway obstruction in horses with COPD and IAD that may otherwise be inapparent. Cytologic evaluation of BAL fluid allows early detection of inflammatory respiratory disease, but it is not specific for COPD. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62: 538–546)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research