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Introduction This study was prompted by an observed case in which a planned cesarean section on a French Bulldog resulted in the delivery of 3 healthy neonates. The resuscitated neonates were placed in an incubator set at 32.2 °C, with oxygen

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

after IOA and those of only warming after IOA in dogs. The objective of the study reported here was to investigate whether prewarming in an incubator after premedication affects body temperature of dogs undergoing inhalation anesthesia. The hypothesis

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

conditions with growth kinetics in hypoxic conditions. Each UCB sample was divided in 2. Half of the initial UCB-derived nucleated cells were plated on standard tissue culture plastic plates and placed in an incubator set to standard normoxic conditions (21

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, pouches were held at controlled room temperature (22.2°C [72.0°F]). After inoculation procedures were completed, boxes containing the vertically positioned pouches were placed in 3 separate incubators, each set at 1 of the 3 treatment temperatures (37.0°C

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate clinical, serologic, parasitological, and histologic outcomes of dogs with naturally occurring Trypanosoma cruzi infection treated for 12 months with amiodarone and itraconazole.

ANIMALS

121 dogs from southern Texas and southern Louisiana.

PROCEDURES

Treatment group dogs (n = 105) received a combination of amiodarone hydrochloride (approx 7.5 mg/kg [3.4 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h, with or without a loading dosage protocol) and itraconazole (approx 10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h, adjusted to maintain a plasma concentration of 1 to 2 μg/mL) for 12 months. Control group dogs (n = 16) received no antitrypanosomal medications. Serologic assays for anti-T cruzi antibodies, PCR assays for T cruzi DNA in blood, and physical evaluations were performed 1, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months after study initiation. Adverse events were recorded. Outcomes of interest were recorded and compared between groups.

RESULTS

86 of 105 treatment group dogs and 8 of 16 control group dogs survived and completed the study (5/19 and 6/7 deaths of treatment and control group dogs, respectively, were attributed to T cruzi infection). Mean survival time until death attributed to T cruzi was longer (23.19 vs 15.64 months) for the treatment group. Results of PCR assays were negative for all (n = 92) tested treatment group dogs (except for 1 dog at 1 time point) from 6 to 24 months after study initiation. Clinical improvement in ≥ 1 clinical sign was observed in 53 of 54 and 0 of 10 treatment and control group dogs, respectively; adverse drug events were minor and reversible.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested efficacy of this trypanocidal drug combination for the treatment of T cruzi infection in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To document the maternal transfer of IgG antibodies from Blue and Gold Macaw hens to chicks via the egg; to measure serum IgG half-life in macaw chicks; and to measure the ability of 2- to 10-week-old macaw chicks to generate primary and secondary IgG responses.

Procedure

4 adult Blue and Gold Macaw hens were inoculated with 200 μg of bovine serum albumin (BSA) every 21 days throughout the breeding season. Eggs laid by these hens were incubator hatched to eliminate the possibility of antibody transfer through crop secretions during feeding. Anti-BSA titer was measured just prior to each inoculation in hens and in chicks from 14 to 42 days of age. 1 chick from each of 5 macaw clutches hatched to nonimmunized hens was assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups. Group-1 chicks were inoculated with 200 μg of BSA at 2 and 6 weeks of age. Group-2 chicks were inoculated with 200 μg of BSA at 6 and 10 weeks of age. Anti-BSA titer was measured weekly for 8 weeks after primary inoculation.

Blood samples were centrifuged, and serum was harvested and frozen at −85 C until analyzed. Anti-BSA IgG titers were measured by ELISA. In the maternal transfer experiment, an exponential decay model was used to calculate the half-life of BSA antibodies in chicks. In the BSA antibody response experiment, comparison of primary and secondary anti-BSA responses of 2- and 6- week-old chicks was performed, using a two-way repeated measures ANOVA, with significance set at P < 0.05.

Results

Hens maintained high anti-BSA titer throughout the breeding season. Maternal transfer of anti-BSA IgG antibodies was documented in all 7 chicks. Anti-BSA titer in chicks decreased in exponential fashion with an average serum IgG half-life of 3.85 days. By 42 days of age, antibodies to BSA were virtually undetectable in all chicks. The primary antibody response of 6-week-old chicks was significantly higher than that of 2-week-old chicks (P = 0.016). No significant difference was observed in the magnitude of the secondary antibody responses between these age groups. Peak anti-BSA IgG antibody responses were reached by 14 days after primary and secondary immunization. Chicks of both age groups generated lower anti-BSA IgG titer than did adult Blue and Gold Macaws.

Conclusions

Blue and Gold Macaw hens transfer IgG antibodies to their chicks through the egg. The half-life of IgG in newly hatched chicks is approximately 3.85 days. 6-week-old chicks develop higher anti-BSA titers than do 2-week-old chicks, but significantly lower titers than do adult macaws.

Clinical Relevance

Information on the nondomestic avian immune system will be useful in the development of vaccination and other preventive health programs for psittacine birds. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1162-1167)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

facilities —Among the 155 clinics for which data were provided, a laboratory incubator was used most commonly (123 [79.4%]). In 20 (12.9%) clinics, an insulated container with a thermostat-controlled heat source was used, and in 12 (7.7%) clinics, an

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

mg/kg [9.09 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h), itraconazole (10 mg/kg [4.55 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h), fluids (lactated Ringer's solution, 16 mL, SC), and gavage feeding a (3 mL) before being placed in a heat incubator. Despite treatment, the bird died overnight

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

hypothermia. In light of this, a study was performed to determine whether prewarming in an incubator (after premedication with acepromazine and buprenorphine but before induction of anesthesia) would decrease the incidence or severity of hypothermia in small

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-controlled incubator with a clear plexiglass door for a 15-minute waiting period during which they were monitored without stimulation. Immediately following this 15-minute period, parrots were manually restrained by a technician experienced with handling psittacines

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research