of 1 horse/1 time/1 site were evaluated, and the most severe infiltration score was used for analysis.
Immunohistochemistry and histomorphometry
Immunohistochemistry was performed on all biopsies to quantify T lymphocytes (CD3) and B
Among horses with glandular gastric lymphocytic infiltrate of the ventral pylorus (n = 13 mild and n = 5 moderate), immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed samples was used to evaluate T-cell lymphocytes
. Blocks of lung tissue were sent to the Purdue University Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory for immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin, thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), and napsin A, all of which are routine assays and validated at the laboratory
Objective—To determine the location, morphology,
and neurochemical code of spinal cord and dorsal root
ganglion neurons that innervate the gastrocnemius
muscle (GM) and superficial digital flexor muscle
(FDSM) in cattle.
Animals—5 healthy Friesian male calves.
Procedure—2 different types of neuronal retrograde
fluorescent tracers (fast blue and diamidino yellow)
were injected into the GM and FDSM, respectively.
The neurochemical code (substance P, calcitonin
gene-related peptide, galanin, and neuronal nuclear
protein) of labeled neurons was investigated by
Results—Neurons innervating the GM and FDSM
were located along the L6-S2 spinal cord segments
and ganglionic levels. A cranial-to-caudal topographic
distribution for each muscle was found, indicating that
the motor nuclei of the 2 muscles are organized by a
somatotopic pattern. The GM and FDSM motoneurons
were immunoreactive only for calcitonin generelated
peptide, whereas the afferent neurons were
immunoreactive for all of the neurochemical markers
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In our study,
location and the extent of neurons that supply the GM
and FDSM of cattle were characterized completely.
Because the GM and FDSM are involved in spastic
paresis of calves and it is thought that spastic paresis
results from an excessive activity of the neuromuscular
spindle reflex arc, findings in our study may be
useful for further electrophysiologic and clinical studies.
Knowledge of the neurochemical code of neurons
that supply the GM and FDSM in healthy calves could
be used to compare chemical alterations in the same
neuronal population of affected calves. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:710–720)
MRI, surgical, and histologic findings, a hematoma within an intramedullary arachnoid cyst seemed most likely.
Immunohistochemistry was performed in an attempt to confirm this diagnosis and to exclude other possibilities ( Figure 5 ). Examination for
specimens for histologic examination were obtained (shaded rectangles; only the MFCi was used for the COL2–¾C short immunohistochemistry). Cartilage was acquired for determination of sGAG content (stippled rectangles). Synovial membrane was harvested from a
, moderate chondroid metaplasia, and loss of collagen fiber bundling), or grade 3 (severe degenerative changes including large areas with metaplastic chondrocytes, mineralization, and fragmented or separated collagen fibers).
cows, replacement heifers, or bulls was not provided. Calves that had positive ACE results for BVDV were confirmed PI via immunohistochemistry on an additional ear notch specimen. The purpose of the study reported here was to report the prevalence of
elastin content and for differences in collagen and elastin fiber orientation between control and affected llamas.
Immunohistochemistry –-Immunohistochemistry was performed on 6-μm thick, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of SDFT, DDFT, and SL
Routine and immunohistochemical staining
Samples were routinely processed for paraffin embedding and sectioned at a thickness of 5 to 6 μm, followed by staining in H&E, Masson trichrome, or Alcian blue stains. For immunohistochemistry, each