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commonly used to model bacterial infection and induce an acute immune challenge in poultry. 3 It initiates inflammatory responses via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressed on the cell surface of leukocytes such as monocyte or macrophages and heterophils. 4

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To determine whether recombinant ovine interleukin (oIL)-1 or oIL-2 alters basal or hypothalamic peptide-induced secretion of ACTH from cultured sheep pituitary cells.

Animals

The pituitary gland was collected from castrated male sheep ranging from 0.5 to 1 year old.

Procedure

Cells were cultured for 3 to 5 days, then were treated with oIL for variable periods. Cells were washed and treated with the hypothalamic peptides corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) or arginine vasopressin (AVP) or both. Medium bathing the cells was collected and assayed for ACTH concentration.

Results

Ovine IL-1α and oIL-1β, but not oIL-2, increased the amount of ACTH released in response to CRH, AVP, and CRH and AVP combined. Both oIL were effective after 3, but not 18 or 24 hours of exposure. Treatment with oIL-1 did not affect basal release of ACTH. Exposure of cells to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or calphostin C before treatment with oIL-1β inhibited the ability of the cytokine to augment ACTH release, suggesting a role for protein kinase C in the process.

Conclusions

Local concentration of oIL-1 in the sheep pituitary gland may have an important role in determining secretion of ACTH in response to CRH or AVP or both from the hypothalamus.

Clinical Relevance

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis may be activated after immune challenge. The cytokine oIL-1 has been implicated as an important mediator in this process. The pituitary gland may be an important target for this effect. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:107–110)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

from the immune stimulus. Prioritization of nutrients to different tissues has been postulated to occur to ensure the survival of the animal 12 and implies that surviving an immune challenge takes priority over other biological needs, especially growth

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

starvation or immune challenges such as inflammation from trauma and infections. 13 Experimental evidence in exotic bird species for this assumption is lacking to date, but the evident conclusion that husbandry measures should aim at minimizing stress and

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

inspection and monitoring in vaccine production is very high. The use of mice for the immune challenge protection test can greatly save the production cost of vaccine manufacturers. Therefore, it was feasible to use mice instead of sows for safety inspections

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

immunity . Nat Rev Immunol 2011 ; 11 : 519 – 531 . 10.1038/nri3024 42. Nathan C . Neutrophils and immunity: challenges and opportunities . Nat Rev Immunol 2006 ; 6 : 173 – 182 . 10.1038/nri1785 43. Serhan CN , Savill J . Resolution

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

.1146/annurev.ph.57.030195.001523 49. Nathan C . Neutrophils and immunity: challenges and opportunities . Nature Rev Immunol 2006 ; 6 : 173 – 182 . 10.1038/nri1785 50. Mantovani A , Cassatella MA , Costantini C , et al. Neutrophils in the

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research